Radhika’s Krishna is the cause of all causes

Introduction:

It may appear very curious why Srimati Radharani’s Krishna is the cause of all causes is mentioned as the title of this article. It is to be understood Lord Krishna has countless expansions and all are Vishnu tattva. All have been glorified as Bhagavan and frankly one should not distinguish between them as they are all the same Supreme person but different expansions. Still for the sake of understanding the tattva the differences between them have been drawn by the acharyas of different sampradayas.

This article is very long so the readers are requested to be patient or can read it in a span of few days . One need to spend more time in understanding the tattva. We have made no compromise in length while writing this article as presenting the absolute truth is the sole intention.

The sastras confirm that the glories of Krishna cannot be sung in few words so we are not to blamed for the length of this article.

 


 

None of acharyas are wrong:

One may get confused whom to believe ?  There are 4 authenticated sampradayas and its branches.  Among them Sri Sampradaya worships Lord Narayana as the cause of all causes.  A large section of Madhava sampradaya also does that. Nimbarka, Rudra, Gaudiya sampradayas worship Sri Krishna as the cause of all causes. So one may ask who is right and who is wrong ?

We say all acharyas are right and no one is wrong. Well how is that ?  Yes it right as Sri Samparadaya and Madhava has revealed the absolute truth from point of Vaikunthapati Sriman Narayana and His catur vyuh expansions . All the work of material creation , destruction etc are taken care by expansions of Sriman Narayana . All sampradayas agree on this point . Major section of vedic literature refers to Sriman Narayana and his expansions predominated by Mahavishnu.


 

Krishna worshiped by majority  in 4 sampradayas is not mere  coincidence:

  1. But Nimbarka Sampradaya , Rudra Sampradya(Vallabha sect exists now) , Gaudiya Sampradaya and even some of Madhava Sampradaya worship Golokapati Sri Krishna [the beloved of Srimati Radharani ] whose vilasa expansion is Sriman Narayana and is based on the authority of scriptures .
  2. There are references that Sri Andal, one of the 12 Alwars, the predecessors of Sri Ramanuja have worshiped Lord Krishna in Madhurya Rasa.
  3. Sri Madhavacharya himself worshiped the deity of Krishna.
  4. It is also no secret that ancestral deity of Sri Sankaracharya [The promoter of Mayavada and an incarnation of Lord Shiva] is Lord Krishna . He installed the Krishna deity for his mother after praying to Krishna .  It is also no secret that Sankaracharya’s teachings towards the end of his life were dedicated to Lord Krishna.

Why such difference in worship among Vaishnavas as promoted by the great acharyas ?

It can be analyzed in  three ways :

1. From the point of refuting advaita vada on the authority of vedanta sutra and Upanishads:

Sri Sankaracharya used the authority of vedanta sutra and primary Upanishads to prove the theory of advaita vada and thus deviate others from the worship of Vishnu tattva. It is well known from scriptures that Lord assigns  his representatives to the role of specific tasks. The task of deviating one from Vishnu was assigned to Lord Shiva as per Padma Puran in form of Sri Sankaracharya. After that to raise the victory flag for Vaishnavas, the task was assigned to Sri Ramanuja and followed by Madhava. Thus Lord has established Narayana worship through them.

Sri Nimbarkacharya appeared before the time of Sankaracharya and Sri Vishnu Swami(as per followers of vallabhachaya) appeared after the task of defeating advaita philosophy was accomplished. Hence they have whole heartedly glorified Svayam Bhagavan Sri Krishna  the original cause of all causes from scriptural authority and have promoted His worship. Hence there is no conflict.

In order to defeat the philosophy of Advaitavada these acharyas most prominently used those scriptures used by Sankaracharya. These scriptures sings the glory of Narayana .  Hence those acharyas promoted worship of Narayana.

2. From the point of Rasa :

Vaishnavas don’t argue among themselves if Krishna or Vishnu is the Supreme. They consider it a matter of one’s relationship with the Lord. Someone has a relationship with Vishnu, someone with Rama, someone with Krishna, etc. as per rasa theology.

Let us explain this on the authority of Sri Chaitanya Charitamrita where discussion between Mahaprabhu and a follower of Sri Sampradaya is explained.

CC Madhya 9.108 — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu remained at the house of Veṅkaṭa Bhaṭṭa and constantly talked with him about Lord Kṛṣṇa. In this way He was very happy.

CC Madhya 9.109 — Being a Vaiṣṇava in the Rāmānuja-sampradāya, Veṅkaṭa Bhaṭṭa worshiped the Deities of Lakṣmī and Nārāyaṇa. Seeing his pure devotion, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was very satisfied.

CC Madhya 9.110 — Constantly associating with each other, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and Veṅkaṭa Bhaṭṭa gradually developed a friendly relationship. Indeed, sometimes they laughed and joked together.

CC Madhya 9.111 — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu told the Bhaṭṭācārya, “Your worshipable goddess of fortune, Lakṣmī, always remains on the chest of Nārāyaṇa, and she is certainly the most chaste woman in the creation.

CC Madhya 9.112 — “However, my Lord is Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa, a cowherd boy who is engaged in tending cows. Why is it that Lakṣmī, being such a chaste wife, wants to associate with My Lord?

CC Madhya 9.113 — “Just to associate with Kṛṣṇa, Lakṣmī abandoned all transcendental happiness in Vaikuṇṭha and for a long time accepted vows and regulative principles and performed unlimited austerities.”

CC Madhya 9.114 — Caitanya Mahāprabhu then said, “ ‘O Lord, we do not know how the serpent Kāliya attained such an opportunity to be touched by the dust of Your lotus feet. Even the goddess of fortune, for this end, performed austerities for centuries, giving up all other desires and observing austere vows. Indeed, we do not know how the serpent Kāliya got such an opportunity.’ ”

CC Madhya 9.115 — Veṅkaṭa Bhaṭṭa then said, “Lord Kṛṣṇa and Lord Nārāyaṇa are one and the same, but the pastimes of Kṛṣṇa are more relishable due to their sportive nature.

CC Madhya 9.116 — “Since Kṛṣṇa and Nārāyaṇa are the same personality, Lakṣmī’s association with Kṛṣṇa does not break her vow of chastity. Rather, it was in great fun that the goddess of fortune wanted to associate with Lord Kṛṣṇa.”

CC Madhya 9.117 — Veṅkaṭa Bhaṭṭa continued, “ ‘According to transcendental realization, there is no difference between the forms of Nārāyaṇa and Kṛṣṇa. Yet in Kṛṣṇa there is a special transcendental attraction due to the conjugal mellow, and consequently He surpasses Nārāyaṇa. This is the conclusion of transcendental mellows.’

3. From the point of Vidhi Bhakti and Raganuga Bhakti:

Vidhi Bhakti : Bhakti where the primary source of motivation is scriptural rules and regulations . Followed by Ramanuja and Madhava sampradaya. They are more attached to the Aishvarya of Lord hence Narayana worship.

Raganuga Bhakti : Bhakti where the primary source of motivation is the sweet dealings of Lord Krishna with the vraj vasis. Followed by Nimbarka , Vallabha and Gaudiya Sampradaya. They are more attached to the Madhurya aspect of Lord hence Krishna worship.

Regarding Aisvarya & Madhurya (corresponding to Vaikuntha & Vraja) bhavas Bhaktivinoda Thakura says in Navadvipa Bhava Taranga, 118:

“As much as my Sri Krsna is endowed with utmost sweetness (madhurya), similarly the Lord of Vaikuntha is endowed with absolute opulence and grandeur (aisvarya). Lord Krsna as Vrajendra-nandana never gives up this same opulence, however, but such aspects of His spiritual grandeur are not noticed by His pure devotees.”

Note: Some will say vidhi bhakti is also preached by Gaudiyas and other sampradayas who promote raganuga bhakti .

We say : Yes favourable angas of vidhi is also followed by us as preached by our acharyas but it is not the primary source of motivation or goal . All our acharyas have promoted raganuga bhakti following the sentiments of hand maidens of Srimati Radharani. Similarly other sampradayas have preached raganuga bhakti in other rasas even though the specific term raganuga bhakti is not used by them. However the meaning is same.


 

That followers of Krishna quote only Srimad Bhagavatam 1.3.28 as authority is a misconception:

Objection:

In some forum we have seen that some devotees who give most priority to Vedanta Sutra and primary Upanishads condemn Nimbarka, Vallabha and Gaudiya sampradaya as they only follow Srimad Bhagavatam as primary source of Knowledge which is mostly dedicated to  Krishna.

These devotees claim Vedanta Sutra is the essence of Vedas  and we only quote Srimad Bhagavatam 1.3.28 as our authority. So the understanding of these  sampradayas in incomplete.

Some even claim that Srimad Bhagavatam is not authentic purana and have been created by another person name Vyasa who is not the original Vyasa.

Refutation:

This is a very offensive statement  and only propagated by those who are envious by nature . All these sampradayas follow ALL the vedic scriptures and then draw the conclusions  but Srimad Bhagavatam is close to our heart for obvious reasons. That we  quote only Srimad Bhagavatam 1.3.28 as our authority is a completely wrong understanding as will be proved below .

However one should understand the importance of Srimad Bhagavatam as described in other scriptures proving that the literature is authentic and most recommended in Kaliyuga. Below we are quoting from 5 different puranas. There are other references as well.

Now the point to understand is each purana glorifies itself. But only in case of Srimad Bhagavatam many puranas have glorified it . Is it mere coincidence ? We guess not.

—————

In the Garuda Purana it is stated –

artho ’yam brahma-sutranam bharatartha-vinirnayah
gayatri-bhasya-rupo ’sah vedartha-paribrmhitah
grantho ’stadasa-sahasrah srimad-bhagavatabhidhah

The Srimad Bhagavata is the AUTHORIZED explanation of Brahma-sutras, and it is a FURTHER explanation of Mahabharata(Bhagavat Gita is a part of Mahabharata also ). It is the expansion of the gayatri-mantra and the essence of all Vedic knowledge. This Bhagavata, containing eighteen thousand verses, is known as the explanation of all Vedic literature.” (This verse was Quoted by Sri Madhva in his Bhagavata-tatparya.)

———————-

This is also confirmed in the Matsya Purana (53.20-22) and Agni Purana (272.6.7) –

yatradhikrtya gayatrim vamyate dharma-vistarah
vrtasura-vadhopetam tad bhagavatam istyate

likhitva tac ca yo dadyad dhema-simha-samanvitam
prausthapadyam paurnamasyam sa yati paramam gatim

asta-dasa-sahasrani puranam tat prakirtitam

“That purana is known as the Bhagavata which gives the highest religious principles, refers to the sacred gayatri mantra, and tells the story of the slaying of Vrtasura. This purana has 18,000 verses and whoever writes down the entire text and places it on a golden throne and gives it in charity to a qualified person on the day of the full-moon of the month of Bhadra will attain the Supreme abode.”

——————–

In the Padma Purana (Uttara-khanda 193.3)

puranesu tu sarvesu srimad bhagavatam param
yatra prati-padam krsno giyate bahudharsibhih

Of all the puranas, the Srimad Bhagavatam is the greatest. In every line the sages glorify Sri Krsna in various ways.

Also in the Padma Purana –

padau yadiyau prathama-dvitiyau trtiya-turyau kathitau yad-uru
nabhis tatha pancama eva sasto bhujantaram dor-yugalam tathanyau

kanthas tu rajan navamo yadiyo mukharavindam dasamam praphullam
ekadaso yas ca lalata-pattam siro’pi yad dvadasa eva bhati

namami devam karuna-nidhanam tamala-varnam suhitavataram
apara-samsara-samudra-setum bhajamahe bhagavata-svarupam

“The first and second cantos of the Bhagavata are Sri Krsna’s feet. The third and fourth cantos are His thighs. The fifth canto is His navel. The sixth canto is His chest. The seventh and eighth cantos are His arms. The ninth canto is His throat. The tenth canto is His beautiful lotus-face. The eleventh canto is His forehead. The twelth canto is His head.

I bow down to that Lord , the ocean of mercy whose color is like that of a tamala tree and who appears in this world for the welfare of all. I worship Him as the bridge for crossing the unfathomable ocean of material existence. The Bhagavata has appeared as His very Self.”

————–

In the Visnu Khanda of the Skanda Purana (5.16.40-42, 44,33) –

sataso ‘tha sahasrais ca kim anyaih sastra-samgrahaih
na yasya tisthate gehe sastram bhagavatam kalau

katham sa vaisnavo jneyah sastram bhagavatam kalau
grhe na tisthate yasya sa viprah svapacadhamah

yatra yatra bhaved vipra sastram bhagavatam kalau
tatra tatra harir yati tridasaih saha narada

yah pathet prayato nityam slokam bhagavatam mune
asta-dasa-purananam phalam prapnoti manavah

If the Bhagavatam is not kept in one’s house in the Kali Yuga, of what avail are collections of other scriptures by the hundreds and thousands? How can he be condidered a Vaisnava who, in the Kali Yuga, does not keep the Bhagavata in his house? Even if he is a brahmana, he is lower than an outcaste. O Narada, O Sage, wherever the Bhagavata is found in the Kali-yuga, there Hari goes together with all the demigods. O Muni, that pius soul who daily recites a verse from the Bhagavata reaps the fruits of the eighteen Puranas.”

 

In the Skanda Purana (Visnu-khanda 6.4.3) it says –

srimad bhagavatasyatha srimad bhagavatah sada
svarupam ekam evasti sac-cid-ananda-laksana

“The Srimad Bhagavata and the Supreme Lord are always of the same nature – possessed of eternal existence, knowledge and bliss.”


 

Why Vyasadeva wrote Srimad Bhagavatam ?

It is no wonder then that Vedavyasa felt discontent even after compiling the Vedas, Puranas, Mahabharata and Vedanta-sutra :

tathapi bata me daihyo hy atma caivatmana vibhuh
asampanna ivabhati brahma-varcasya sattamah

I am feeling incomplete, although I am fully equipped with everything required by the Vedas.” (Bhagavata 1.4.30)

The reason for his discontentment was then explained by Narada Muni –

jijnasitam susampannam api te mahad-adbhutam
krtavan bharatam yas tvam sarvartha-paribrmhitam

“You have completed your inquiries and your studies in the proper fashion, and you have written a great and wonderful work, the Mahabharata, which elaborately explains the different goals of life.” (Bhagavata 1.5.3)

bhavatanudita-prayam yaso bhagavato ’malam
yenaivasau na tusyeta manye tad darsanam khilam

You have not actually broadcast the sublime and spotless glories of the Personality of Godhead. That philosophy which does not satisfy the transcendental senses of the Lord is considered worthless.”

yatha dharmadayas cartha muni-varyanukirtitah
na tatha vasudevasya mahima hy anuvarnitah

“O best of sages, since you have broadly described the four goals of human life beginning with religious performances, you have not described the glories of the Supreme Personality, Vasudeva.” (Bhagavata1.5.8-9)


 

Srimad Bhagavatam 1.3.28 is the paribhasha-sutra of Srimad Bhagavatam:

Srimad Bhagavatam 1.3.28 is not the only quote in Srimad Bhagavatam  which states Krishna is the supreme personality of Godhead and the cause of all causes. There are other statements also . But Srimad Bhagavatam 1.3.28 is used more often as it is paribhasha-sutra .

Srila Jiva Goswami in Krishna Sandarbha Anuccheda 29 explains the scriptural definition of paribhasha-sutra.
This (third) chapter in the First Canto of Shrimad-Bhagavatam tells the secret of the Lord’s birth and gives a summary of all the descriptions of the Lord’s incarnations. Because it comes at the beginning of the book, and because it describes what will follow later on, its “ete camsha-kalah pumsah” verse (1.3.28) is a is the paribhasha-sutra (definition of terms, or system of abbreviations, placed in the beginning of book, which must be understood in order to properly understand the remainder of the book), for the Shrimad-Bhagavatam.

A paribhasha-sutra is defined in the following quote:

“A paribhasha-sutra explains the proper method for understanding a book. It gives the key by which one may understand the actual purport of a series of apparently unrelated facts and arguments.”

The paribhasha-sutra is only stated once in a book, and it is not repeated. A single paribhasha-sutra may govern the contents even of a very large book with millions of statements or arguments. An example of this is the paribhasha-sutra “vipratishedhe param karyam,” which governs the entire text of Panini’s Ashöadhyayi.

Someone may object: Many verses in the text of Shrimad-Bhagavatam contradict the statement of your so-called paribhasha-sutra. If this verse contradicts the text of the book it is supposed to explain, then the argument that it is the paribhasha-sutra for Shrimad-Bhagavatam is certainly a very weak and doubtful argument.

To this objection I reply: Shrimad-Bhagavatam describes the ultimate phase of the Absolute Truth and the supreme goal of life. It is not a loose collection of nice stories for casual reading. The weightiness of the subject matter of the Bhagavatam demands that it be prefaced by a paribhasha-sutra to explain the subject matter to follow.
The Mimamsa-darshanam (3.3.14) explains: “Scriptural instructions are more authoritative than the logical arguments known as linga, vakya, prakarana, and sthana, and these logical arguments are more authoritative than conclusions drawn from historical accounts.”

 


 Conflict resolution of the list of incarnations presented in Shrimad-Bhagavatam:

Objection:
Someone may protest: You claim Srimad Bhagavatam is the spotless purana recommended for Kaliyuga but Krishna has already been described as the twentieth in the list of incarnations as stated in Srimad Bhagavatam  1.3.23 . Then why do you state that Krishna is the source of all incarnation ?

Answer :

From Krishna Sandarbha By Jiva Goswami : Anuccheda 28

After concluding the description of the various expansions of Lord Paramatma, and His various potencies, Suta Gosvami proceeds to describe the original form (Bhagavan) of the Personality of Godhead in the next verse of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (1.3.28):

All of the above-mentioned incarnations are either plenary portions or portions of the plenary portions of the Lord, but Lord Shri Krishna is the original Personality of Godhead.

In this verse the word “ete” (all these) refers to the incarnations previously described in this chapter of Shrimad-Bhagavatam. The word “ca” (and) is meant to include all the incarnations not mentioned in this list. The word “pumsah” means “of the Supreme Personality of Godhead who expands as the purusha-incarnations” and the words “amsha-kalah” mean “plenary portions and portions of the plenary portions“.

In this way the incarnations of the Lord may be grouped into two categories. Some are plenary portions of the Lord and others are portions of the plenary portions of the Lord. In addition to these there are empowered living entities (avesha incarnations) and incarnations of the Lord’s potencies (kala).

Someone may protest: Krishna has already been described as the twentieth in the list of incarnations.

For this reason only , when Suta Gosvami says “Krishnas to bhagavan” the intention is that Bhagavan refers to Lord Vasudeva, the origin of the purusha incarnation.

again to this objection we reply: The following grammatical rule is found in the Ekadashi-tattva:

“One should not state a predicate before its subject.”

Therefore it cannot be avoided that in this sentence Krishna is the subject and Bhagavan is the pedicate. By word-jugglery no one can change the clear meaning of this verse: that Krishna is the original form of the Personality of Godhead (Bhagavan), and no one can say that Lord Vasudeva assumed the form of Krishna. In this way this verse clearly demonstrates that Krishna is the original form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and not merely a form expanded from Vasudeva.

Someone may object: Has not Krishna already been mentioned in the list of incarnations of Godhead?
To this I reply: The rules of literary composition state:

More significant facts, and facts meant to be emphasized should be placed at the end of a composition, for the final parts of a composition are naturally considered more important by the reader.”

Therefore, because the statement “Krishna is the original Personality of Godhead” is placed at the end of the list of incarnations, that is to be stressed more than the fact that He is also included in that list.

In the description of the Agnishöoma sacrifice, the Shruti-shastra explains:

“If the Udgata priest leaves prematurely and does not complete the sacrifice, he becomes ineligible to receive the priestly remuneration. If his assistant, the Pratiharta priest, then completes the sacrifice, that assistant becomes then entitled to receive all the priestly rewards.”

This is another example of the great significance of the final statement or the final activity.

When two contradictory methods of atonement are prescribed in the scriptures, and the difference between them cannot be reconciled by learned scholars, the atonement mentioned last is always considered to overrule what was stated previously and is taken as the final conclusion.
In the same way, the inclusion of Krishna in the list of incarnations is overruled by the statement that appears at the conclusion of the description of the incarnations: that Krishna is the original Personality of Godhead.

Conclusion of Shruti sastra and Smriti sastra does not contradict :

Someone may object: Your Purana may say that Krishna is the original form of the Personality of Godhead, but this conception of God is contradicted by the ultimate scriptural authority: the Shruti-shastra. The actual authority is the Shruti, as confirmed in Vedanta-sutra, which, eloquently explained by Shankaracarya in Shariraka-bhashya, says (Vedanta-sutra 3.3.50) :

shruty-adibaliyastvac ca na badhah

“There is no fault in this statement because the Shruti is the most significant and conclusive evidence.”

To this I reply: The Shruti-shastra does not contradict the Bhagavatam’s explanation that Krishna is the Original Suprme Personality of Godhead. The Shruti clearly explains:

“The Supreme Personality of Godhead is full of all transcendental knowledge.”
The passage in the Vajasaneyi-samhita that begins with the phrase “manashcit” and that recounts the story of Agnideva clearly refutes the misconception that the Supreme Godhead is not independent, and clearly explains that because the Godhead is full of all knowledge, He must threfore also be supremely independent, and free to do whatever He likes.
The Shruti does not deny that Krishna is the Original Supreme Personality of Godhead, but rather, by describing the Lord’s supreme independence, supports it.

Although Krishna is sometimes not specifically declared the original Personality of Godhead, when Krishna is counted in this (Bhagavatam, 1st Canto, 3rd Chapter) list of incarnations, He is declared the original Godhead in the phrase “bhagavan aharad bharam (The original Personality of Godhead then removed the burden of the world)”.
Therefore, even though counted in the list of incarnations, Krishna is the original Personality of Godhead who, to fill His associates with bliss and wonder, and to expand the sweetness of His birth and other pastimes, sometimes comes to this world and is seen by all.

This is confirmed in Brahma-samhita (5.50):

I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, who by His various plenary portions appeared in the world in different forms and incarnations such as Lord Rama, but who personally appears in His supreme original form as Lord Krishna.

The word incarnation is defined: “The descent of the Supreme Personality of Godhead into the material world”.
Because Lord Balarama is Lord Krishna’s constant intimate companion, therefore Lord Balarama cannot be an expansion of the purusha-incarnation, but He must be a direct expansion of Lord Krishna.
By using the word “tu” (but), Lord Krishna is clearly distinguished from the “amsha-kalah” (plenary portions and parts of the plenary portions of the purusha-incarnation). Lord Krishna is not another expansion of the purusha-incarnation.

The word “tu” may also be used simply to emphasize a statement, and may mean “certainly” or “indeed”. (This is confirmed in the statement “savadharana shrutir balavati” (The word tu is used for emphasis). Taken in this way, the word “Tu” emphasizes that only Krishna is the Original form of the Personality of Godhead, Narayana or any of the other secondary expansions of the Lord, are not the original form of the Lord.

SB 1.3.26 O brāhmaṇas, the incarnations of the Lord are innumerable, like rivulets flowing from inexhaustible sources of water.

In the phrase “yathavidasinah kulyah sarasah syuh sahasrashah” (The incarnations of the Lord are innumerable like rivulets flowing from inexaustible sources of water) (S.B. 1.3.26) it may be understood that, because the Lord and His expansions share the same nature, as the original Supreme Personality of Godhead is eternal, so His expansions are also eternal. Although Lord Vasudeva and Lord Aniruddha are equal in all respects, Lord Aniruddha sometimes devotedly meditates on Lord Vasudeva. To argue that this is cotradicted by the Shruti-shastra is wrong. For the Supreme Lord, who is the source of all incarnations, and for all His expansions, there are gradations of higher and lower.

This is confirmed in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (3.8.3-4):

“Some time ago, being inquisitive to know, Sanat-kumara, the chief of the boy-saints, accompanied by other great sages, inquired exactly like you about the truths regarding Vasudeva, the Supreme, from Lord Sankarshana, who is seated at the bottom of the universe. At that time Lord Sankarshana was meditating upon His Supreme Lord, whom the learned esteem as Lord Vasudeva.”

This verse clearly states that Lord Vasudeva is superior to Lord Sankarshana. These gradations of higher and lower do not refer to Krishna. The phrase krishnas tu (but Krishna) separates Him from them. Krishna is then declared to be “bhagavan svayam” (the original Supreme Personality of Godhead).

This is also confirmed in Vedanta-sutra (2.3.45):

“No one is superior to the Original Personality of Godhead, from whom everything has expanded.”

In this sutra the difference between the Original Personality of Godhead and His expansions is clearly shown.

As the splendid sun is not like the tiny fireflies, so the svamsha expansions, such as Lord Matsya, are not like the jivas. This difference is clearly enunciated in the statement “Krishnas tu bhagavan svayam” (Lord Shri Krishna is the Original Personality of Godhead).

The word “indrari” begins the second half of this verse (1.3.28). Because the word “tu” here divides the sentence, and because the Lord’s desires are always fulfilled, the meaning of this verse is affirmed. The word “tu” has the same meaning as the word “ca”. The phrase beginning with “indrari” is followed by the phrase beginning “mridayanti”. This verse is spoken by Shri Suta Gosvami.

Additional Note :

Just because Svayam Bhagavam Krishna has incarnated along with all planary expansions as will be explained in this article so Krishna is included in the list of incarnation. But only to prevent the readers from misunderstanding Krishna as an incarnation  the verse 1.3.28 was specifically spoken .
All incarnation of Lord may be called Bhagavan but it is also to be noted that while describing the list of avatars who have appeared in the world in Srimad Bhagavatam the word Bhagavan has ONLY  been used only in verse of describing Balarama – Krishna avataras and not ANY of the avatars. Why ? Is it also  a coincidence or there is a deeper understanding ?

SB 1.3.23

ekonaviṁśe viṁśatime
vṛṣṇiṣu prāpya janmanī
rāma-kṛṣṇāv iti bhuvo
bhagavān aharad bharam

In the nineteenth and twentieth incarnations, the Lord advented Himself as Lord Balarāma and Lord Kṛṣṇa in the family of Vṛṣṇi [the Yadu dynasty], and by so doing He removed the burden of the world.

Bhagavan aharad bharam is very significant. This verse also establish the superior position of Krishna from other avataar mentioned in the list the conclusion of which is presented in SB 1.3.28.

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Sri Jiva Goswami in  Krishna Sandarbha Anuccheda 23 explains:

The next verse (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.3.23) describes the nineteenth and twentieth incarnations:

“In the ninteenth and twentieth incarnation, the Lord advented Himself as Lord Balarama and Lord Krishna in the family of Vrishni [the Yadu dynasty], and by so doing He removed the burden of the world.”*

By using the word “bhagavan” in this verse, Suta Gosvami says that Lord Krishna is directly Bhagavan, the original form of the Personlity of Godhead. He is not an expansion of the purusha-incarnation Lord Aniruddha.

Lord Krishna is directly the original form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and Lord Balarama is His immediate plenary expansion. Both Krishna and Balarama removed the burden of the earth, so the phrase “bhagavan aharad bharam” may refer to either of Them.

We may note here that Lord Balarama is not an expansion of Lord Aniruddha. Just as Lord Krishna is directly the original form of Lord Vasudeva, in the same way, Lord Balarama is the original form of Lord Sankarshana. This is the proper understanding of the transcendental forms of Lord Krishna and Balarama.

 

 


 

Why contradictions in sastras ?

Many times contradictions  arises due to names . Some explanations of Krishna refers to Vasudeva Krishna [The husband of Rukmini Devi and Lord of Dwaraka] who is an expansion of Syawam Bhagavan Sri Krishna , the master of Goloka[Beloved of Srimati Radharani] . Vasudeva Krishna of Dwaraka belongs to the 1st catur vyuh which is an expansion of Golokapati Krishna . The Vasudeva of 2nd catur vyuh which expands from Sriman Narayana is not the Vasudeva Krishna of Dwaraka. This confusion arises due to same Name.

Some devotees claim that Krishna  is an expansion of Sriman Narayana . Some claim He is an expansion of Kshirodashayi Vishnu, the third purusha avataar. Some say Krishna is an expansion of Narayana rishi . Some say He is an expansion of Lord vamana. All such claims are based on interpretations of some scriptural references . But  the point is Krishna cannot be simultaneously the avataar of all these amsa avataars mentioned above. If He has to be an amsa avataar then it has to be of one amsa avataar not many.  Isn’t it ?  So there must be some problem in understanding these interpretations.  but scriptures cannot be wrong.

Kurma Purana states :

When contradictions are found in the Vedic scripture, it is not that one statement is wrong. Rather, both statements should be seen in such a way that there is no contradiction.

Also Swayam bhagavan Krishna  Himself descends at the end of Dwapara yuga in 28th Chatur Yuga on the 7th Manvantara, once in every day of Brahma . So it appears that He is an incarnation but it is not . This confusion is resolved  in Srimad Bhagavatam just after explanation of avataras . We will come to that.

It is not coincidence that Krishna  is worshiped as the cause of all causes in the majority of authenticated sampradayas . So we have to assume any other understanding[including impersonal Brahman] is a partial understanding of the cause of all causes but not wrong .


 

Our willingness to put an end to confusion:

From the words of Srila Jiva Goswami in Krishna Sandarbha.

Someone may object: By speaking only a few arguments, you have attempted to refute the great mass of evidence against your theory. I cannot believe your conclusion.
To this I reply: In the Vedanta-sutra and other Vedic literatures many lengthy arguments are refuted in a few words. The length of an argument is not the criterion of whether it is true or not. Even in the material world we may see an example of this, for sometimes a single strong fighter may defeat a thousand soldiers in the battle. In the same way a single strong argument may defeat thousands of illogical words. All of your arguments are defeated by Lord Krishna Himself, for He describes Himself as the ultimate meaning of all the Vedic literatures in the following words (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 11.21.42-43):

SB 11.21.42 In the entire world no one but Me actually understands the confidential purpose of Vedic knowledge. Thus people do not know what the Vedas are actually prescribing in the ritualistic injunctions of karma-kāṇḍa, or what object is actually being indicated in the formulas of worship found in the upāsanā-kāṇḍa, or that which is elaborately discussed through various hypotheses in the jñāna-kāṇḍa section of the Vedas.
SB 11.21.43 I am the ritualistic sacrifice enjoined by the Vedas, and I am the worshipable Deity. It is I who am presented as various philosophical hypotheses, and it is I alone who am then refuted by philosophical analysis. The transcendental sound vibration thus establishes Me as the essential meaning of all Vedic knowledge. The Vedas, elaborately analyzing all material duality as nothing but My illusory potency, ultimately completely negate this duality and achieve their own satisfaction.
————-
 In our article we will present various references so that objectors are satisfied that we also can present various quotes from various sources. Our Gaudiya acharyas have already established them many centuries ago. We will just follow their footsteps.

 

Our apology to the firm devotees of other forms of Lord :

We do not intent to hurt the sentiments of worshipers of other forms of Lord predominated by Sriman Narayana, Nrisinghadeva , Lord Ramachandra who are engrossed in His loving devotion . I beg forgiveness from them in case they become offended  and request them not misunderstand our intentions. We have tried our best to harmonize the tattva and the teachings of all sampradayas . We do not intent to deviate or discourage  anyone from their firm devotion (ekanti bhakti ) Nor we intent create conflict.  But it is painful for us to see common people refer Sri Krishna as an incarnation due to partial understanding and challange the understanding of these sampradayas .

Quoting from Gaudiya Vaishnava acharya Srila Narottama Das Thakura  Mahashaya’s Prema-bhakti-chandrika.

sakala vipatti yabe, mahananda sukha pAbe
yAra hoy ekanta bhajana || 25 ||

 

All obstacles will vanish and the joys of wondrous ecstacy will be attained through ekanta-bhajana.
lubdha bhramara yeno, cakora candrikA teno,
pativratA-janera yeno pati |
anyatra nA cole mana, yeno daridrera hema,
eimata prema-bhakti rIti || P.B.C. 81 ||
In the ways of a greedy bumblebee, a cakora-bird longing for moonlight, a chaste wife thinking of her husband, and a poor man longing for gold, one thinks of nothing else. Such are the ways of prema.”
The story of Hanuman’s single-minded attachment to Rama to the  point of exclusion of Vasudeva Krishna is very famous.
Apana Apana patha, tate hobo anurata,
istadeva sthane lila gana |
naiSThika bhajana ei, tomAre kohilo bhai
hanuman tahate pramana || P.B.C. 28 ||
With great attachment to your very own path, singing of the sports of your ishta-deva in his abode… such is naisthika-bhajana (firm worship), I tell you, O brother, and of this Hanuman is the example.

 

 


Some Words of Acknowledgement

We have taken shelter of our most worshipable acharya Srila Rupa Goswami to explain this tattva following Sri Laghu Bhagavatamrta . However additional references from other acharyas most prominently Srila Jiva Goswami  have been added where ever applicable.

Sri Jiva Goswami worships Shrila Gopala Bhatta Gosvami as his source of Knowledge. Shrila Gopala Bhatta Gosvami belongs to a scholar family of Sri Ramanuja Sampradaya.

“Shrila Gopala Bhatta Gosvami, the great philosopher from the southern provinces who greatly pleased Shrila Rupa Gosvami and Shrila Sanatana Gosvami, left many valuable notes which defeat various philosophical misconceptions. Systematically arranging these notes, and considering their content, Jiva Gosvami writes this book, Krishna-sandarbha.”

Both Srila Rupa Goswami and Jiva Goswami Acknowledged Srila Sridhara Swami ,the great acaharya of Vishnu Swami or Rudra Sampradaya and have used his commentaries in some cases to explain a specific verse.
Sri Laghu Bhagavatamrta : From The lotus mouth of Srila Rupa Goswami(Rupa Manjari) who eternally serves as the dearmost prana-sakhi of  Srimati Radharani in Goloka :


Vedic revelation is the best of all evidence:

Because the Vedic revelation is the best of all evidence, I will base my arguments on it and not on material logic. The best of sages accepts the Vedic revelation as the best evidence, for he said (Vedanta-sutra 1.1.3): “The Supreme is understood from the Vedic revelation”.(Chapter 1 .7-8)

With the words (Vedanta-sutra 2.1.11) “The Supreme cannot be understood by material logic” he directly criticized material logic.(9)

To prove that the Supreme Lord, Shri Krishna, is the best of they who are worthy of worship, His forms will be described here, one after another.(10)

[ Note: As mentioned by Srila Rupa Goswami each and every verse is based on scriptural authority and is not self created logic. Though in few verses direct reference to particular verse in a particular scripture is not mentioned  but they can be validated from various scriptures and are authentic references as accepted by scholars across various sampradayas . Also the topic fully supports monotheism even though Lord expands into various forms. It should also be noted that only a minor percentage of total vedic scriptures exists today and others have lost with time. Though the conclusive knowledge is available to the acharyas in parampara ]


The Svayam-rupa, Vilasa, Svamsha, and Avesha Forms of the Lord:

In His abodes beyond the worlds of matter, the Supreme Lord is manifest in three kinds of forms: 1. svayam-rupa, 2. tad-ekatma-rupa, and 3. avesha-rupa. (Chapter 1.11)

1.Svayam Rupa:

The svayam-rupa is said to be the original form, not manifested from any other.(12) [Golokapati  krishna]

It is described in Brahma-samhita (5.1): “Krishna, who is known as Govinda, is the supreme controller. He has an eternal, blissful, spiritual body. He is the origin of all. He has no other origin, for He is the prime cause of all causes.” (13)

The svayam-rupa is not different from His original form.

2. Tad-ekatma-rupa:

In the Tad-ekatma-rupa the Lord’s form and other features are different from His original form. The tadekatma-rupa forms are divided into two types:

  • vilasa-rupa
  •  svamsha-rupa.                              Text 14

 

2.a.  Vilasa-rupa :

When the Lord displays numerous forms with different features by His inconceivable potency, such forms are called vilasa-vigrahas. In this way from Lord Govinda  manifests Lord Narayana, the master of the spiritual sky, and from Lord Narayana is manifest Lord Vasudeva [of 2nd catur vyuh]. 15-16

2.b. Svamsha-rupas:

These forms manifest other forms that have lesser power, and are called svamsha-rupas. The forms headed by Lord Sankarshana and the forms headed by Lord Matsya, each manifest in His own abode, are examples of these forms. 17

Exalted individual souls (jivas) into whom Lord Janardana enters with a portion of His knowledge-potency and other potencies, are called aveshas. Shesha, Narada, and the four Kumaras are examples of them in Vaikuntha. They were seen by Akrura, as described in the Tenth Canto. 18 19

3. Prakasha-rupas:

Prakasha-rupas are the same form manifest in many places.If numerous forms, all equal in their features, are displayed simultaneously, such forms are called prakasha-vigrahas of the Lord. Lord Krishna’s did this in the many palaces of Dvaraka. This will be proved when Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.69.2 is quoted here. 20-22

“Sometimes, without abandoning His Krishna-form, Lord Krishna manifests a four-arm form. This is a prakasha-rupa of His two-arm form.” 23

Abodes in Spiritual sky:

The many forms of the Supreme Lord each have their own abode in the spiritual sky, beyond the touch of matter. This is confirmed in the Uttara-khanda of the Padma Purana, and in many other Vedic literatures also.  24

[Note : Additional scriptural references to  points mentioned above will be presented below in other sections.]


The Purusha ,  Guna  and Lila Avataras: For maintaining activities in material world:

To act in the material world, the Supreme Lord appears in the previously described forms and in other ways, as if He had never appeared in that way before. These appearances are known as “incarnations”. In this way He appears in His tad-ekatma forms, such as Sheshashayi Vishnu, and in His empowered devotees, such as Maharaja Vasudeva. (Chapter 2.verse 2-3)

Again there are three kinds of incarnations of the Lord:

  1. purusha-avataras
  2. guna-avataras
  3. lila-avataras.

These incarnations are mostly svamsha-rupa and avesha-rupa forms. The Lord may also appear in His svayam-rupa among them. 4-5


 

Purusha avataras:

Now the purusha-avataras will be described. In Vishnu Purana (6.8.59) it is said:

“I offer my respectful obeisances to the eternal, unchanging purusha-avatara, who has a great variety of transcendental qualities, who seems to be impure although He is supremely pure, who appears in many forms, who is full of transcendental knowledge, and who is the origin of all transcendental powers and opulences.”
Shridhara Swami notes that the phrase “tasyaiva anu” means “after the Supreme Controller is described.” 6

Here is an explanation. He who is expanded from the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who although He seems to be part of the manifested and unmanifested material modes, in truth only observes them, and who is the source of many incarnations of Godhead, the Shruti-shastras describe as the purusha-avatara. For example, Shrimad-Bhagavatam explains (2.6.40):
Karanarnavashayi Vishnu is the first incarnation of the Supreme Lord.”7-8[Meaning 1st purusha incarnation.]

The different purusha-avataras are described in Satvata Tantra:

Vishnu has three forms called purushas. The first, Maha-Vishnu, is the creator of the total material energy (mahat), the second is Garbhodashayi, who is situated within each universe, and the third is Kshirodashayi, who lives in the heart of every living being. He who knows these becomes liberated from the cluthes of maya.” 9

The first purusha-avatara is described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (11.4.3):

When the primeval Lord Narayana created His universal body out of the five elements produced from Himself and then entered within that universal body by His own plenary portion, He thus became known as the Purusha.” 10

Brahma-samhita (5.10-13) also describes Him:

“The Lord of the world Maha-Vishnu is manifest in him (Lord Maheshvara) by His subjective portion in the form of His glance.”

The Lord of the mundane world, Maha-Vishnu, possesses thousands of thousands of heads, eyes and hands. He is the source of thousands of thousands of avataras in His thousands of thousands of subjective portions. He is the creator of thousands of thousands of individual souls.

The same Maha-Vishnu is spoken of by the name of Narayana in this mundane world. From that eternal person has sprung the vast expanse of water of the spiritual causal ocean. The subjective portion of Sankarshana who abides in Paravyoma, the above supreme purusha with thousands of subjective portions, reposes in the state of divine sleep (yoga-nidra) in the waters of the spiritual causal ocean.”

The spiritual seeds of Sankarshana existing in the pores of skin of Maha-Vishnu are born as so many golden sperms. These sperms are covered with five great elements.” 11

In this passage the word “linga” means different from the original form (svayam-rupa) of the Lord”.12

Brahma-samhita 5.14) then describes the second purusha-avatara:
“The same Maha-Vishnu entered into each universe as His own separate subjective portions.” 13

That the Lord expands as Lord Pradyumna and thus becomes the origin of Garbhodakashayi Vishnu is confirmed in the Narayana-upakhyana of the Moksha-dharma:

“As Garbhodakashayi Vishnu, lotus-naveled Lord Pradyumna is the father of Lord Aniruddha.” 14

The third purusha-avatara is described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (2.2.8):

“Others conceive of the Personality of Godhead residing within the body in the region of the heart and measuring only eight inches, with four hands carrying a lotus, a wheel of a chariot, a conchshell and a club respectively.[Kshirodashayi Vishnu]” 15


 

Some additional references from Sri Jiva Goswami on catur vyuh appearing as purush avataras  :

Krishna sandarbha: Anuccheda 2: In the Mahabharata’s Moksha-dharma Narayaniya (Shanti-parva 339.12-14), Lord Garbhodakashayi Vishnu, in His form as the master of Shvetadvipa, confirms this explanation in the following verses:

From My fourth expansion the eternal form of Lord Shesha is manifest. Then Lord Sankarshana is manifest and from Him Lord Pradyumna appears. From My appearance as Lord Pradyumna I again appear as Lord Aniruddha. From the lotus flower of Lord Aniruddha’s navel, Brahma is born, and form Brahma all the material elements as well as the moving and non-moving living entities appear.

Vedavyasa also explains:

They who are learned in sankhya-yoga declare that Lord Aniruddha is the all-pervading Supersoul. Lord Sankarshana’s transcendental deeds have expanded His reputation as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The wise know that the unmifest origins (pradhana) of material creation have emanated from Lord Shankarshana, and because of Him this original form of matter evolves into the manifest material world. Lord Aniruddha, the all-pervading Supersoul present in each universe, appears from Lord Sankarshana, and He creates Brahma, the grandfather of all living entities.

The first part of this passage describes the glories of Lord Sankarshana, and the second part, beginning with the words “aniruddho hi”, describes the glories of Lord Aniruddha. The word “lokeshu” means “in each universe” and the word “mahatma” means the all-pervading Supersoul (paramatma). The word “vyaktatvam” means “manifested from Lord Pradyumna.” The rest of the verse is clear and requires no comment.

Because Suta Gosvami wanted to emphasize that all Vishnu-forms are actually the same single Personality of Godhead, he did not place Lord Pradyumna’s name in this verse. The same reason prompted the author of Satvata Tantra to avoid specifically naming the various the various purusha-incarnations when he spoke the verse beginning “vishnos tu trini rupani” (which has been quoted in Anuccheda 1, Text 14).
The first purusha-incarnation is also described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (2.6.42):

Karanarnavashayi Vishnu is the first incarnation of the Supreme Lord, and He is the master of eternal time, space, cause and effects, mind, the elements, the material ego, the modes of nature, the senses, the universal form of the Lord, Garbhodakashayi Vishnu, and the sum total of all living beings, both moving and nonmoving.” [First incarnation for material activities]

Shridhara Svami explains in his commentary:

“In this verse the word `parasya’ means `of the Supreme Personality of Godhead’ and the word `purushah’ means `the purusha-incarnation, who creates the material world’.
“This first purusha-incarnation (Karanodakashayi Vishnu) is described in the Rig Veda (10.90.1): `The Supreme Personality of Godhead then appeared as the first purusha-incarnation, who had thousands of faces, eyes and feet. Expanding in all directions, the purusha-incarnation exceeded the dimensions of the universe by the measurement of ten fingers.’
“We may also note in the connection that the Lord accepts the form of the purusha-incarnation (adyo ‘vatarah) in order to enjoy transcendental pastimes.”


 

All of Lord’s form possess the same spiritual quality:

Anuccheda 3

These two forms (Bhagavan-Vasudeva and the purusha-incarnation) possess the same spiritual quality. This is described (by Suta Gosvami in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.3.3):

“The body of the Supreme Personality of Godhead is eternally in spiritual existence par excellence, and has nothing to do with the created material ingredients.”*

In this verse the phrase “tad vai bhagavato rupam” describes the form of the purusha-incarnation. This verse describes the Lord’s supremely pure spiritual form, which, in one sense, is not different from His transcendental potency.

The transcendental nature of the form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead is described in the following prayer offered by Brahma to Garbhodakashayi Vishnu (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 3.9.3):

“O my Lord, I do not see a form superior to Your present form of eternal bliss and knowledge.”*

In the Shrimad-Bhagavatam verse (1.3.3) quoted in Text 1, the word “vishuddham” (pure) means that because the Supreme Personality of Godhead has all transcendental potencies, He can therefore remain always pure and free from even the slightest trace material contamination. The word “urjitam” (powerful and glorious) means that because the Lord’s form is full of supreme spiritual bliss, He remains always powerful and glorious and His spiritual prowess never becomes diminished under any circumstance.


 

The second Purusha avataar further explained:
Anuccheda 4-6

In the following verses from the Third Canto, Eighth Chapter of Shrimad-Bhagavatam, Maiteya Muni describes the form of the second purusha-incarnation (Garbhodakashayi Vishnu).

“The luster of the transcendental body of the Lord mocked the beauty of the coral mountain. The coral mountain is very beautifully dressed by the evening sky, but the yellow dress of the Lord mocked its beauty. There is gold on the summit of the mountain, but the Lord’s helmet, bedecked with jewels, mocked it. The mountain’s waterfalls, herbs, etc., with a panorama of flowers, seem like garlands, but the Lord’s gigantic body, and His hands and legs, decorated with jewels, pearls, tulasi leaves and flower garlands, mocked the scene on the mountain.”*
-3.8.24
“As a sandalwood tree is decorated with fragrant flowers and branches, the Lord’s body was decorated with valuable jewels and pearls. He was the self-situated tree, the Lord of all others in the universe. And as a sandalwood tree is covered with many snakes, so the Lord’s body was also covered by the hoods of Ananta.”*
-3.8.29
“Like a great mountain, the Lord stands as the abode for all moving and nonmoving living entities. He is the friend of the snakes because Lord Ananta is His friend. As a mountain has thousands of golden peaks, so the Lord was seen with the thousands of golden-helmeted hoods of Ananta-naga; and as a mountain is sometimes filled with jewels, so also His transcendental body was fully decorated with valuable jewels. As a mountain is sometimes submerged in the ocean water, so the Lord is sometimes submerged in the water of devastation.”*
-3.8.30
In Shrimad-Bhagavatam (9.14.2) Shukadeva Gosvami says:

“Lord Vishnu (Garbhodakashayi Vishnu) is also known as Sahasra-shirsha Purusha. From the lake of His navel sprang a lotus, on which Lord Brahma was generated. Atri, the son of Lord Brahma, was as qualified as his father.”*

in order to clarify the exact nature of Shri Bhagavan, Suta Gosvami says that the second purusha-incarnation (Garbhodakashayi Vishnu) is the origin from whom the other incarnations of Godhead emanate. He says (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.3.5):

“This form [the second manifestation of the purusha] is the source and indestructible seed of multifarious incarnations within the universe. From the particles and portions of this form, different living entities, like demigods, men and others, are created.”*

In the verse the word “etat” means “that form which is situated within the material universe”. The word “nidhanam” indicates that Garbhodakashayi Vishnu is the source of all other incarnations of the Supreme Lord just as the ocean is the large reservoir of water, which is the original source of the other smaller bodies of water. The word “avyayam” means “indestructible” and the word “bijam” means “origin”.
The second purusha-incarnation is not only the source of the vishnu-tattva forms of the Supreme Lord, but is also the source of the individual living entities (jivas). This is confirmed by the phrase “yasyamshamshena”.

That the Supreme Lord is the creator of the individual living entities (jivas) is confirmed by the following statement of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.87.31):

“The living entities are created by the contact of the Supreme Controller with His material energy, just as bubbles and foam are produced on the surface of the water.”*

 


Guna Avatar : Brahma Vishnu Shiva:

From the purusha-avatara[Garbhodakasayi Vishnu]  Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva, who  create,maintain and destroy the material universe, are said to have come. 16

They are described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (1.2.23):

“The transcendental Personality of Godhead is indirectly associated with the three modes of material nature, namely passion, goodness and ignorance, and just for the material world’s creation, maintenance and destruction He accepts the three qualitative forms of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva. Of these three, all human beings can derive ultimate benefit from Vishnu, the form of the quality of goodness.” 17

Explanation:  As controllers of them they have a relationship with the material modes of nature. Only the one that is a svamsha-avatara has no relation with the modes. 18


Brahma:The creator: controller of Mode of passion

As the subtle Hiranyagarbha and the gross Viraja, Brahma, who is born from the Lord’s lotus navel, is manifest in order to enjoy and create. Thus he has two features. 19

Four-headed Vairaja Brahma appears in order to create the material universe and perform other duties. Sometimes Lord Vishnu Himself becomes Brahma and creates the universe.20

Padma Purana explains:
“In some maha-kalpas a jiva soul becomes Brahma by devotional service, and in other maha-kalpas Lord Maha-Vishnu Himself becomes Brahma.” 21

In a maha-kalpa where Lord Vishnu personally becomes the creator Brahma, He enters the material universe as Viraja Brahma and enjoys transcendental bliss. Thus the kalpas are divided into those ruled by the Lord and those ruled by a jiva.22

When the scriptures say that the Personality of Godhead becomes Brahma, some say that in general this means that the Lord personally appears, and others say this means the Lord appears as an avesha-avatara.23

Brahma-samhita (5.49) explains:

“I adore the Primeval Lord Govinda from whom the separated subjective portion Brahma receives his power for the regulation of the mundane world, just as the Supreme manifests some portion of his own light in all the effulgent gems that bear the names of Suryakanta, etc.” 24

Brahma is generally born from Garbhodakasayi Vishnu’s lotus-navel, although the scriptures explain that sometimes he is born from water, fire, wind, or another element. 25


 Vishnu:The maintainer: Controller of mode of goodness:

Lord Vishnu is described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (3.8.15):

“Into that universal lotus flower Lord Vishnu personally entered as the Supersoul, and when it was thus impregnated with all the modes of material nature, the personality of Vedic wisdom, whom we call the self-born, was generated.”33

The Vishnu described here is considered to be Kshirodakashayi Vishnu. Because He is a vilaasa-avatara of Garbhodakashayi Vishnu the great sages call Him “Narayana“, “the Universal Form”, and “the All-pervading Supersoul”.34

 


 

Shiva : The destroyer: Controller of mode of ignorance:

Shiva appears in eleven forms and eight forms. Generally he has ten arms and five heads, with three eyes on each head. 26

The scriptures explain that, as Brahma is, so Shiva is sometimes a jiva soul and sometimes an amsha-avatara like Lord Shesha. 27

Because He is an incarnation of the Personality of Godhead, He is generally beyond the modes of material nature. However, because he is touched by the mode of ignorance, He is thought to be affected by it. This is described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.88.3):”Lord Shiva is always associated with the three modes of nature.” 28

He is described in Brahma-samhita (5.45):

Just as milk is transformed into curd by the action of acids, but yet the effect curd is neither the same as, nor different from, its cause, viz., milk, so I adore the primeval Lord Govinda of whom the state of Shambu is a transformation for the performance of the work of destruction.” 29

Sometimes He is born from Brahma’s forehead and other times from Vishnu’s forehead[Mahavishnu as per Brahma Samhita].  At the kalpa’s end He is born from Lord Sankarshana as the fire of time. 30

Shiva’s form named Sadashiva, who is a direct expansion of the Personality of Godhead, is the cause of all causes, is free from the slightest scent of the mode of ignorance, and resides in Shivaloka, is described in the Vayu Purana and other scriptures.31

He, the original form of Lord Shiva, is described in Brahma-samhita (5.8):

“Rama-devi, the spiritual (cit) potency, beloved consort of the Supreme Lord, is the regulatrix of all entities. The divine plenary portion of Krishna creates the mundane world. At creation there appears a divine halo of the nature of His own subjective portion (svamsha). This halo is divine Shambhu (Sadashiva), the masculine symbol or manifested emblem of the Supreme Lord. This halo is the dim twilight reflection of the supreme eternal effulgence. This masculine symbol is the subjective portion of divinity who functions as progenitor of the mundane world, subject to the supreme regulatrix (niyati). The conceiving potency in regard to mundane creation makes her appearance out of the supreme regulatrix. She is Maya, the limited, non-absolute (apara) potency, the symbol of mundane feminine productivity. The intercourse of these two brings forth the faculty of perverted cognition, the reflection of the seed of the procreative desire of the Supreme Lord.” 32


 

Some references from Sri Jiva Goswami  in Krishna Sandarbha anucheda 29 text 69 about conclusion presented in Shaivite Puranas:

Statements in the Shaivite Puranas should not be accepted unless they are corroborated by the Vaishnava Puranas. This is confirmed in the Shaivite Puranas (Skanda Purana) where Lord Shiva says to Karttikeya:

Statements in the Shaivite Puranas should be accepted only if they are confirmed in the Vaishnava Puranas.

The followers of Lord Shiva may try to present a different conclusion, but they are simply contradicting the words of their own master, recorded in their own scripture. From this statement of Lord Shiva we may understand that the Shaivite Puranas are not a very reliable source of spiritual information. They are not actually able to purify the conditioned souls, and their position is described in the following statement of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (1.8.52):

“It is not possible to filter muddy water through mud or purify a wine-stained pot with wine.”

On should not therefore rely on the impure statements of the Shaivite Puranas.

Note: The divine halo (sambhu) appears from the forehead of MahaVishnu . This divine halo is the actual jyotirlinga and the cause of creation as worshiped by some shaivites. This divine progeny of Maya and Sambhu is referred as prakriti and purush by saktas and shaivites . Unfortunately most of them are unaware of this.This is why Lord Shiva and Mother Parvati are  referred as the controllers in some puranas . Though the actual cause is not mentioned there in some cases . Only some lilas which will keep their devotion fixed in them are provided. As we have previously explained partial knowledge or pastimes to install faith  is not wrong but not complete. In some puranas greatness of Lord Shiva is shown by the pastime where Shiva appeared as jyotirlinga and Brahma and Kshirodashayi Vishnu were asked to find the source of that jyotirlinga. The linga referred here is the halo of Mahavishnu which is the masculine symbol of creation represented by Lord Sadashiva who himself is an expansion of Lord Krishna.  

 


 

Though it is said that Brahma Vishnu and Shiva are identical and one should not differentiate , Vishnu is considered  superior to them :

From Parmatma Sandarbha: Sri Jiva Goswami.Text 9-11
Some philosophers, claiming that the three Deities Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva are identical in all respects, may dispute these conclusions.

Here is the explanation given in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (1.2.23):

“The transcendental Personality of Godhead is indirectly associated with the three modes of material nature, namely passion, goodness and ignorance, and just for the material world’s creation, maintenance and destruction He accepts the three qualitative forms of Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Śiva. Of these three, all human beings can derive ultimate benefit from Viṣṇu, the form of the quality of goodness.”

Sri Jiva Goswami explains:

Although the three modes of nature are not equal, and are indeed situated in different levels of merit, nevertheless, they are all manifested and controlled by the one Supreme Personality of Godhead (parah purusha ekah). Therefore the controllers of the modes are not different from Lord Vishnu. These words are certainly the truth. However, Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva are still different in the sense that some are direct manifestations of the Supreme Personality of Godhead and others are indirect manifestations of the Lord. Therefore one cannot reject the idea that the modes and their Deities are situated in different levels of importance. This is described in the following example given by Shrimad-Bhagavatam (1.2.24):

Firewood is a transformation of earth, but smoke is better than the raw wood. And fire is still better, for by fire we can derive the benefits of superior knowledge (through Vedic sacrifices). Similarly, passion (rajas) is better than ignorance (tamas), but goodness (sattva) is best because by goodness one can come to realize the Absolute Truth.

Firewood manifested from earth (parthivat) is not like smoke, for smoke has some fire within it. In the same way the mode of ignorance does not manifest the duties described in the Vedas, but in the mode of passion the duties described in the Vedas may be partially manifested. By rubbing two wooden sticks one may create some and then a fire that may be used to perform a yajna. In this way smoke may lead to performance of Vedic duties (tryimayah). In this way smoke, or passion, is considered to be a better resting place for the duties described in the Vedas. Better than smoke, however, is fire. In this way it is seen that in the mode of goodness the duties described in the Vedas are directly manifested. Therefore goodness is better than passion. As wood is far from actual fire, so ignorance is far from goodness. As smoke is not as far from fire, so passion is not as far from goodness. From the mode of goodness one may attain brahma-darshanam (the realization of the Absolute Truth). Thus by following the duties described in the Vedas one comes to have realization of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

By the word “tu” (but) is hinted the truth that the mode of ignorance brings destruction. Because it brings some material knowledge, the mode of passion brings a little light to see the Supreme. In other words, in the mode of passion one comes closer to seeing the Supreme. However, because it is so agitating and troublesome, the mode of passion does not allow one to see the Supreme properly.

In this verse goodness is compared to fire. This is because in goodness one can directly see the Supreme. Because goodness is by nature peaceful and pure, goodness enables one to directly and properly see the Supreme. In this way it is proved that Brahma and Shiva are indirect incarnations and Lord Vishnu is a direct incarnation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. That is the meaning.


 

The residences of Lord Vishnu in this material world:
The residences of Lord Vishnu in this material world, which are described in the Vishnu-dharmottara Purana and other Vedic literatures, now will be described in brief. Vishnu-dharmottara Purana explains: 35
[Note:here abode material world are discussed .There are abodes in spiritual world also.]
“Above Shivaloka is the place named Vishnuloka, which is 50,000 yojanas in measurement and cannot be approached from any other planet. Above it, to the east of Mount Meru, and in the midst of an ocean, is the splendid golden realm called Maha-vishnuloka. There, resting on the couch of Ananta Shesha, and accompanied by Shrimati Lakshmi-devi, Lord Vishnu, the master of all the demigods, takes a nap at the end of the summer season. 36-38

“East of Mount Meru, in the midst of a milk-ocean, is another splendid city of the Lord. There, resting on the couch of Ananta Shesha, and accompanied by Shrimati Lakshmi-devi, the Lord sleeps during the four months of the monsoon season. 39-40

“In the southern part of that milk-ocean is a very beautiful and splendid island 25,000 yojanas wide called Shvetadvipa.41

“O Yadava, the people there are splendid as the sun and handsome as the cooling moon. They are so splendid even the demigods cannot gaze on them.” 42

In Brahmanda Purana it is said:

“Surrounded by the ocean of milk is a beautiful golden island 100,000 yojanas wide named Shvetadvipa, which is washed on all sides by the playful jasmine and lotus waves of the splendid milk-ocean.”43-44

Vishnu Purana, Moksha-dharma, and other scriptures say, Shvetadvipa is on the northern shore of the milk-ocean.” Padma Purana says, “Shvetadvipa is north of the pure milk-ocean.”45-46


Lord Vishnu and His many incarnations are beyond the influence of the three modes of material nature:
All Vedic literatures explain that Lord Vishnu and His many incarnations are beyond the influence of the three modes of material nature. When the word “sattva-tanu” is used to describe Him, it should be interpreted to mean either “He who expands the activities of the mode of goodness (sattvam tanoti)” or “He who is the controller of the mode of goodness.” 47-48

This is confirmed in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.88.5):

“Shri Hari, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is situated beyond the range of material nature; therefore He is the supreme transcendental person. He can see everything inside and outside; therefore He is supreme overseer of all living entities. If someone takes shelter at His lotus feet and worshps Him, he also attains a transcendental position.” 49

In this way it is understood that the word “sattva-tanu” means “He who is the best.” Thus the scriptures establish the eternality of devotional service to the Lord. 50-51


 

Glory of taking shelter of Lord Vishnu and his expansions in scriptures:

Furthermore, in Padma Purana:

Vishnu should always be remembered and never forgotten at any time. All the rules and prohibitions mentioned in the shastras should be the servants of these two principles.” 52

There it is also said:

“In order to bewilder the moving and non-moving inhabitants of the material universe, the Puranas and other Vedic scriptures may sometimes say that this or that demigod is the Supreme Lord. The actual final conclusion of all Vedic literatures, however, is that only Lord Vishnu, and no one else, is Bhagavan .“53

In Shrimad-Bhagavatam (1.2.26):

“Those who are serious about liberation are certainly nonenvious, and they respect all. Yet they reject the horrible and ghastly forms of the demigods and worship only the all-blissful forms of Lord Vishnu and His plenary portions.”54

The svamsha-avataras here are called kalas. Brahma, Shiva, and all other demigods are inferior to the svamsha-avataras of Lord Vishnu.55-56

There it is also said (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.18.21):

Who can be worthy of the name of the Supreme Lord but Mukunda ? Brahmaji collected the water emanating from the nails of His feet in order to award it to Lord Shiva as a worshipful welcome. This very water (the Ganges) is purifying the whole universe, including Lord Shiva.” 57

In Maha-varaha Purana also:

“Matsya, Kurma, Varaha, and other incarnations are equal to Lord Vishnu, for they are not different from Lord Vishnu Himself. Brahma and the other material demigods are described as not equal to Lord Vishnu, although as His potency they are also equal to Him.”

The word “prakriti” (potency) here means spiritual potency”. Because they are simultaneously different and not different from the Lord, here it is said that they are both equal to Him and not equal to Him. 58-59

 

 


Krishna is not an incarnation of Nara-narayana Rishi or Lord Vamana as paravastha (Complete form) cannot be displayed by an  expansion of  amsa avataras:


 

 

In some places Lord Krishna is said to be an avatara of Nara’s friend Narayana Rishi, and in other places it is said He is an avatara of Lord Vamana. The wise do not accept these statements. (Chapter 5.text 1)

Objection:

The below verses are interpreted as follows:

In Skanda Purana:

[A statement in Skanda purana is interprated by many as follows:] “Dharma’s two sons, who are named Nara and Narayana Rishi, and who are amsha-avataras of Lord Hari, have now taken birth as Krishna and Arjuna in the dynasty of the moon-god.” 2

In Shrimad-Bhagavatam 4.1.59:

“That Nara-Narayana Rishi, who is a partial expansion of Hari, has now appeared in the dynasties of Yadu and Kuru, in the forms of Krishna and Arjuna respectively, to mitigate the burden of the world.” 3

A very strong argument is found in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.69.16:

“The Personality of Godhead, Krishna, who is the incarnation of Narayana Rishi, the friend of Nara Rishi, thus worshiped the sage Narada according to Vedic regulative principles. Welcoming him with sweet nectarean words, He addressed Narada as bhagavan, or one who is self-sufficient, possessing all kinds of knowledge, renunciation, strength, fame, beauty, and similar other opulences. He particularly asked Narada, What can I do in your service?”4

The following statment of Maharaja Indra in the Hari-vamsha supports the idea that Krishna is an incarnation of Vamana:
“O sage Narada, the same Vishnu who was Vamana and to whom I gave a portion of the yajnas, has now become this boy Krishna, on whom I now gaze with love.” 5

Answer:

Lord Krishna is not an incarnation of Narayana Rishi and Vamana because such a view is contradicted by scripture. Rather, it is said that They are amsha-avataras of Him and He is the paravastha (the supreme form of the Lord ). That Narayana Rishi is an amsha-avatara of Lord Krishna is confirmed in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.3.28. That Lord Vamana has the same status is seen in Hari-vamsha: 6-7

Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.3.28 states:

All of the above-mentioned incarnations are either plenary portions or portions of the plenary portions of the Lord, but Lord Sri Krisha is the original Personality of Godhead. All of them appear on planets whenever there is a disturbance created by the atheists. The Lord incarnates to protect the theists.

“O best of the demigods, in ancient times, by performing austerities, Aditi worshiped Lord Vishnu. He was pleased with her and offered a benediction. She said, `O Lord, I desire a son like You.’ He replied, `No one in the world is equal to Me. Therefore, as an amsha-avatara, I will personally become your son.'”  8-9 [Hari Vamsa ]

That Shri Krishna is the paravastha form of the Lord[And the cause of all causes] is clearly proved by what was previously said(Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.3.28). In the scriptures He is called paravastha and sampurnavastha (the complete form of the Lord). This refutes the idea that He is an amsha-avatara. Statements supporting that idea should be seen in a different way.10-11

The Skanda Purana verse quoted in Text 2 should be interpreted in this way:
“Krishna and Arjuna, for whom Nara and Narayana Rishis are dear as Their own selves, have appeared in this world, taking shelter of the kshatriya dynasty descending from the moon-god.”12

Note: In this way the verse is interpreted to mean:
“Nara and Narayana Rishis, who are amsha-avataras of Lord Hari, entered the transcendental bodies of Krishna and Arjuna, and came with Them as They appeared in the dynasties of Yadu and Kuru in order to mitigate the burden of the world.” 13

The quote from the Tenth Canto of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.69.16, quoted in Text 4) should be understood in this way:
Lord Krishna, who because He taught (the Vedic knowledge to Brahma) at the beginning of the universe is called purana-rishi (the eldest sage)”, is the shelter of the three purusha-avataras. When He associated with the human beings in Martyaloka, He imitated their nature, and in that context He worshiped (Narada) Muni. Even though His amsha-avatara, Narayana Rishi, is Narada’s guru, in His kshatriya-pastimes Lord Krishna worshiped Narada Muni.14

The quote from Hari-vama (Text 5, describing Lord Krishna as an incarnation of Vamana), is explained in this way:
Indra spoke these words out of envy and ignorance. In no corcumstance is Lord Krishna the avatara of any other form of the Lord.15

Note: Deeper analysis of paravastha-avataras are presented below and how Krishna is the highest of the paravastha-avataras(Most important form) and is considered sampurnavastha (the complete form of the Lord). It is the continuation of proof that Krishna is superior to Nara Narayana rishi and Lord Vamana who are amsa avatar of Lord Vishnu. Though the scriptural refutations have already been provided. Continuation is needed to further justify the stand.


Most important (paravastha-avatara) forms of Lord:

Now the most important forms of the Lord (paravastha-avatara) will be described. Padma Purana explains:

“In Lord Nrisimha, Ramacandra, and Krishna  the six transcendental opulences are perfect and complete. They are the paravasthas (most important forms of the Lord). From Him (Golokapati Krishna) they are manifested as lamps are lighted from an (original) lamp.(Chapter 5 text 16)


Lord Nrisimha:

Lord Nrisimha is described in Shridhara Svami’s commentary on Shrimad-Bhagavatam (1.1.1., and 10.87.1):[Great acharya of Rudra Sampradaya. One of the 4 authenticated sampradaya]

“Let me offer my obeisances unto Lord Nrisimhadeva, who is always enlightening Prahlada Maharaja within his heart and who always kills the nescience that attacks the devotees. His mercy is distributed like moonshine, and His face is like that of a lion. Let me offer my obeisances unto Him again and again.” 17

“Lord Nrisimhadeva is always assisted by Sarasvati, the goddess of learning, and He is always embracing to His chest the goddess of fortune. The Lord is always complete in knowledge within Himself. Let us offer obeisances unto Nrisimhadeva.”*18

“(Narada) Muni described to King (Yudhishthira) the anger of the pillar’s son (Lord Nrisimha), which with its deep roar stunned lotus-born Brahma.”19

In Shrimad-Bhagavatam 7.8.32-33:

“The hair on Nrisimhadeva’s head shook the clouds and scattered them here and there, His glaring eyes stole the effulgence of the luminaries in the sky, and His breathing agitated the seas and oceans. Because of His roaring, all the elephants in the world began to cry in fear.*20

“Airplanes were thrown into outer space and the upper planetary system by the hair on Nrisimhadeva’s head. Because of the pressure of the Lord’s lotus feet, the earth appeared to slip from its position, and all the hills and mountains sprang up due to His intolerable force. Because of the Lord’s bodily effulgence, both the sky and all directions diminished in their natural illumination.”*21

(Sridhara Svami also explains in His commentary on Shrimad-Bhagavatam 7.9.1:)

“Although very ferocious, the lioness is very kind to her cubs. Similarly, although very ferocious to nondevotees like Hiranyakashipu, Lord Nrisimhadeva is very, very soft and kind to devotees like Prahlada Maharaja.”*22

The blissful glories of Lord Nrisimha are described in the Nrisimha-tapani Upanishad. It is said that Lord Nrisimha resides both in Janaloka and in the world of Vishnuloka, which is above all.23-24


Shri Ramacandra:

Greater even than the one (Lord Nrisimha) before, exalted with the six transcendental qualities and a nectar moon of all sweetness, Lord Ramacandra, the best of the Raghus, shines with great splendor.25

In Padma Purana:

“Let us offer our respectful obeisances to Lord Ramacandra, the Personality of Godhead, who is the delight of King Raghu, who broke Shiva’s bow, and who is the sandal paste that delights Sita-devi’s heart.26

The Shri Ramarcana-dipika describes Lord Ramacandra’s birth-festival:27

“During the ninth tithi, when five planets were exalted, when Jupiter was conjoined with the Moon in the contellation Punarvasu in Cancer on the ascendant, and when the Sun was in Aries, from the arani-wood of Ayodhya was kindled a sacrificial fire of unprecedented power manifested to burn the palasha-wood fuel (of a great host of demons).”28

In Shrimad-Bhagavatam 11.5.34:

“O Maha-purusha, I worship Your lotus feet. You gave up great regal opulence, which is most difficult to renounce and is hankered after by even the great demigods. Being the most faithful follower of the path of religion, You thus left for the forest in obedience to Your father’s words. You chased after the mystic deer Marica, which Your dear Sita desired to get.”29

In Shrimad-Bhagavatam 9.11.20-21:

“Lord Ramacandra’s reputation for having killed Ravana with showers of arrows at the request of the demigods and for having built a bridge over the ocean does not constitute the factual glory of the Supreme Personality of Godhead Lord Ramacandra, whose spiritual body is always engaged in various pastimes. Lord Ramacandra has no equal or superior, and therefore He had no need to take help from the monkeys to gain victory over Ravana.*30

“Lord Ramacandra’s spotless name and fame, which vanquish all sinful reactions, are celebrated in all directions, like the ornamental cloth of the victorious elephant that conquers all directions. Great saintly persons like Markandeya Rishi still glorify His characteristics in the assemblies of great emperors like Maharaja Yudhishthira. Similarly, all the saintly kings and all the demigods, including Lord Shiva and Lord Brahma, worship the Lord by bowing down with their helmets. Let me offer my obeisances unto His lotus feet.”*31

In the verse from Shrimad-Bhagavatam quoted in Text 30, the word “atta” means “manifested, and the word lila-tanu” means “whose spiritual body is always engaged in various patimes”. The compound word “adhika-samya-vimukta-dhama” means “He who has no equal or superior”. The word “samya” means “equality” and it is grammatically analyzed as a svartheshyah-pratyaya. vimukta” means “without”, and “adhika” and “sama” mean “superior” and “equal”. In the verse quoted in Text 31, the word “naka-palah” means “the heavenly demigods, headed by Maharaja Indra, and theword “vasu-palah” means “the earthly kings”.32-33

In the Vishnu-dharmottara Purana it is said that Lord Ramacandra, Lakshmana, and the others are incarnations of the forms of the Lord that begin with Lord Vasudeva. In the Padma Purana, however, it is said that Lord Ramacandra is Lord Narayana, and Lakshmana and the others are Ananta Shesha, and the Lord’s cakra and conch respectively. In the Smriti-shastra it is said that Lord Ramacandra resides in Madhya-desha in the city of Ayodhya-pura. It is also said that He resides in Maha-Vaikunthaloka.34-36


Lord Krishna

Lord Krishna is described by Bilvamangala Thakura:

“There may be many all-auspicious incarnations of the Personality of Godhead, but who other than Lord Shri Krishna can bestow love of God upon the surrendered souls?” 37

Devaki’s son Krishna, who is an unprecedented ocean of the nectar of sweetness and opulence, has been served and worshiped from time immemorial. In the Puranas and other scriptures it is said that He resides in four abodes: Vraja, Mathura, Dvaraka, and Gokula.38-39

 


Why Lord Nrisimha and Lord Ramacandra are not equal to Lord Krishna ?


 

Objection:

Here someone may object: “But it is clearly said that Lord Nrisimha and Lord Ramacandra are equal to Lord Krishna.” The answer to this objection is seen in the Vishnu Purana: 40

(Here someone may object: Is it not) said in the scriptures that (all the Lord’s forms are equal)? In Maha-Varaha Purana (it is said):

“All the Lord’s forms are eternal and imperishable. They are free from birth and death. They are never material.”They are all full of all bliss, all knowledge, and all virtue. They are free of any fault.” (86.a)

Furthermore, in Shri Narada-pancaratra:

“When the jewel known as vaidurya touches other materials, it appears to be separated into different colors. Consequently the forms also appear different. Similarly, according to the meditational ecstasy of the devotee, the Lord, who is known as Acyuta (infallible), appears in different forms, although He is essentially one.”*

Therefore, why do you say there is a hierarchy of the Lord’s forms? (86.b)


Refutation:

ONLY Lord Krishna gives liberation to his enemies: Not any other forms of Krishna: It justifies His superiority

Maitreya’s question In the fourth Canto of Vishnu Purana:

“As Hiranyakashipu and Ravana (this demon) enjoyed sensual pleasures unavailable for even the great demigods, and then was personally killed by Lord Vishnu Himself. Why did (this demon) not attain sayujya-mukti then? Only as Shishupala did he attain sayujya-mukti, the liberation of merging into eternal Lord Hari?”41-42

Shri Parashara’s answer:

“The Supreme Personality of Godhead, who maintains, creates, and destroys the entire cosmic manifestation, manifested the unprecednted form of Lord Nrisimha in order to kill Hiranyakashipu, the king of the demons. The thought that Lord Nrisimha was actually the Supreme Lord Vishnu was not manifest in Hiranyakashipu’s mind. Becuase Hiranyakashipu was overwhelmed by the mode of passion, at the time of his death he was not able to meditate on the trascendental Personality who was kiling him. For these reasons Hiranyakashipu did not attain liberation, but instead took birth as the demon Ravana, whose sense gratification was greater than than all the pleasures in the three worlds.43

“For these reasons Hiranyakashipu was not able to fix his mind in meditation on the supremely opulent and independent Personality of Godhead, who has neither beginning nor end.

“When Hiranyakashipu was born again as the demon Ravana, he became a slave to lust. His mind was completely attached to Sita-devi, and he was therefore not able to fix his mind in meditation on the Supreme Personality of Godhead in His form as Ramacandra, the son of Dasharatha. As Ravana was being killed by Ramacandra, the demon thoght Rama to be an ordinary human being, and for this reason Ravana did not attain liberation because of being killed by the Lord, but in his next birth as Shishupala, merely attained seemingly imperishable opulence and power, which was celebrated throughout the entire earth.44-45

“In this birth as Shishupala he was able to completely hate the Supreme Lord Krishna. He constantly criticized Lord Krishna with words, and in this way constantly called out the Lord’s holy names. With great animosity he constantly meditated on Krishna’s form, decorated with splendid yellow garments, golden bracelets, and a glittering crown adorned with a peacock feather. He meditated on Krishna’s eyes handsome as blossoming lotus petals, and Krishna’s four broad arms, holding the conch, cakra, club, and lotus. While walking, eating, bathing, sitting, sleeping, and performing all other activities, Shishupala remembered Krishna with hatred. His mind never deviated from Krishna for even a moment.46

“Determined to die at Krishna’s hand, Shishupala repeatedly insulted the Lord, and when Lord Krishna finally dispatched the Sudarshana cakra to kill him, Shishupala could understand that the glittering effulgence of the cakra was actually the imperishable Supreme Brahman.47

“In this way, when Shishupala was killed by the Lord’s Sudarshana cakra, all his sins were burned away, and he attained sayujya-mukti, entering the Lord’s own transcendental form.
“O Maitreya, I have thus explained the entire situation to you. He is certainly the Supreme Personality of Godhead. (If) when He is spoken of and remembered in a spirit of hatred, He gives a result difficult for the demigods, demons and all others to attain, then what kind of result does He give to they who love Him and serve Him with devotion?” 48-49

In this passage Parashara did not mention the Lord’s two associates that took birth three times in the world. These two associates are not thought to take birth in every kalpa for then they would fall down in every kalpa. That is not an aceptable idea.50-51

Parashara Muni’s prose answer to Maitreya is now summarized in verse:

Hiranyakashipu could not understand that the wonderful form of Lord Nrisimha displayed by Lord Hari was actually Lord Vishnu. Hiranyakashipu was pious. He was sure that Lord Nrisimha was very extraordinary, but because He was overcome with passion he could not fix his mind on Him. Because he was personally killed by the Lord, Hiranyakashipu attained extraordinary and rarely achieved sense-gratification and opulence in his next birth as Ravana.52-55

Because he could not recognize Lord Nrisimha as Lord Vishnu, and because he was not filled with hatred for Him, Hiranyakashipu was not fixed in meditation on the Lord. If without meditating on the Lord he had hated Him, he would have gone to hell as King Vena had gone. Because he was killed by the Lord’s own hand, he attained great good fortune. Thinking of them, (Parashara) refers to the Lord’s transcendental virtues here by speaking the word “eva” (certainly).56-57

Because he was not absorbed in meditation on the Lord and because his sins were not yet destroyed, he could not see the Lord’s pure nature. Even thought he Lord was manifest before him, he could not merge into the form of His Supreme Brahman. In his birth as Ravana, he became a slave to lust. At the time of his death He thought Lord Rama a mere human being.58-59

Then he took birth as Shishupala, and again he attained great opulence. Because in that birth he chanted all the names of the goddess of fortune’s husband, Lord Narayana, he could understand that Lord Vishnu had killed him twice. For this reason, out of great hatred he always chanted the Lord’s names and criticized Him in many ways.60-62

Gazing at the Lord’s form, he became convinced that this was Lord Vishnu. Always and everywhere he remembered the Lord as he always chanted His names. In this way the great flood of sins born from his hatred of the Lord became burned up. When the Lord threw His cakra at the end, its splendor destroyed his demonic nature and purified his vision. Then he saw that the splendid Supreme Brahman had a humanlike form. Then the cakra destroyed his demon’s body and he merged into the Supreme Brahman.63-64

Considering his explanation that (this demon) attained liberation from the pastimes of child (Krishna), but when he was in the form of Kalanemi or other forms did not attin liberation from the Lord’s activities in other circumstances, (Parashara) said (Text 49), “ayam hi bhagavan” (Krishna is certainly the Supreme Personality of Godhead). 65

In this way it is established that Lord Krishna is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He at once attracts the hearts of both they who love Him and they who hate Him. Therefore the glorification of Him in Text 49 is not surprising. Considering this prose explanation, (it is said) how much greater (than the destination of they who hate the Lord is the destination attained by they who) serve Him with love? 66-67

How can demons who hate the Personality of Godhead and have never come in contact with Lord Krishna attain liberation? (That they cannot attain liberation is confirmed) by the use of the word “eva” (certainly) twice (in the following verses. 80

In Bhagavad-gita (16.19-20):
“Those who are envious and mischievous, who are the lowest among men, are cast by Me into the ocean of material existance, into various demoniac species of life.*81

“Attaining repeated birth amongst the species of demoniac life, such persons can never approach Me. Gradually they sink down to the most abominable type of existance.”*82

In these verses Krishna says: “If those who hate Me do not come into contact with Me in My form as Krishna, they will certainly take birth in a very low species.”83

Therefore Lord Krishna is the best of the three (paravastha forms of the Lord). Why should this be surprising? His exalted nature (of granting liberation to His enemies) cannot be seen in any other (form of the Lord).84
Sri Jiva Goswami in Krishna Sandarbha Anucheda 29 text 100-101 states:

It is also confirmed by Lord Brahma in these words (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 2.7.34):

“All demonic personalities like Pralamba, Dhenuka, Baka, Keshi, Arishta, Canura, Mushtika, Kuvalayapida elephant, Kamsa, Yavana, Narakasura and Paundraka, great marshals like Shalva, Dvivida monkey and Balvala, Dantavakra, the seven bulls, Shambara, Viduratha and Rukmi, as also great warriors like Kamboja, Matsya, Kuru, Shrinjaya and Kekaya, would all fight vigorously, either with the Lord Hari directly or with Him under His names of Baladeva, Arjuna, Bhima, etc. And the demons, thus being killed, would attain either the impersonal brahmajyoti or His personal abode in the Vaikuntha planets.”

By His own transcendental potency, Lord Krishna can grant liberation to anyone, regardless of how they think of Him. It is only Lord Krishna who will always grant liberation to the demons killed by Him. If one is thinking of Lord Krishna, even adversely, at the time of death, he will certainly become liberated. If one hatefully thinks of any other form of the Lord at the time of death, he may not necessarily become liberated. For example, the demon Vena was unable to think of the form of Shri Krishna at the time of his death, and therefore the demon did not attain liberation. One who, at the time of his death meditates on the Personality of Godhead in a spirit of animosity is only assured of liberation if the object of his meditation is specifically the form of Shri Krishna.

Because liberation is attainable even for one who remembers the form of Shri Krishna even in a spirit of animosity, it is said in the Shrimad-Bhagavatam (7.1.33):

“Therefore one must somehow think of Krishna, whether in a friendly way, or inimically.”


Scriptures mentions Krishna to be superior to all these incarnation :


 

 In the description of the fourteen-syllable mantra in the Svayambhuva-agama, Lord Ramacandra, Lord Nrisimha, and the other incarnations are worshiped as disguised forms of Lord Krishna. 85

[Note: This verse is sufficient to dispel above contradictions ]

In Brahmanda Purana:

Although I appear in many different forms, all full in six opulences, none of these forms is equal to My form as the cowherd boy Krishna.

Lord Krishna’s childhood, pastimes (are described, in Padma Purana:

All Lord Krishna’s pastimes are wonderful. Still, His pastimes as a cowherd boy are more charming than all others.

 

Sri Jiva Goswami in Krishna Sandarbha Anuccheda 30 states:

At the beginning of this division is the following verse spoken by the demigods to Lord Vasudeva Krishna (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.2.40):

“O supreme controller, Your Lordship previously accepted incarnations as a fish, a horse, a tortoise, Narasimhadeva, a boar, a swan, Lord Ramacandra, Parashurama and, among the demigods, Vamanadeva, to protect the entire world by Your mercy. Now please protect us again by Your mercy by diminishing the disturbances in this world. O Krishna, best of the Yadus, we respectfully offer our obeisances unto You.”*

Anuccheda 31
This is confirmed in the following verse spoken by Brahma to Lord Krishna (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.14.20):

“O Original Personality of Godhead, O creator of the entire cosmic manifestation, although You never take birth You nevertheless appear among the demigods, sages, human beings, animals, and aquatics, in order to crush the false pride of the demons, and bestow Your mercy to the saintly devotees.”*

Anuccheda 32

This is also confirmed in the following verse (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.8.15) spoken by Gargacarya to Nanda Maharaja:

“For this son of yours (Krishna) there are many forms and names according to His transcendental qualities and activities. These are known to me, but people in general do not understand them.”*

Anuccheda 33
This is also confirmed in the following verse spoken by Nalakuvara and Manigriva to Lord Krishna (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.10.34):

“Appearing in bodies like those of an ordinary fish, tortoise and hog, You exhibit activities impossible for such creatures to perform: extraordinary, incomparable, transcendental activities of unlimited power and strength. These bodies of Yours, therefore, are not made of material elements, but are incarnations of Your Supreme Personality.

This is also confirmed in the following verse (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.58.37) spoken by King Nagnajit to Lord Krishna:

“O Lord who accepts the form of the various pastime-incarnations in order to protect the principles of religion, O Lord, the dust of whose lotus feet is reverentially placed by Lakshmi, Brahma, Shiva, and all the demigods upon their heads, O Supreme Personality of Godhead, what may I do to please You?”

This is also confirmed in the Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.87.46), where Narada Muni offers the following prayer:

“I offer my respectful obeisances to Lord Krishna, the all-knowing Original Personality of Godhead who, in order to liberate the conditioned souls, accepts the auspicious forms of His many incarnations.”

Shridhara Svami explains in his commentary on this verse:

“Speaking to Narayana Rishi, Narada glorified the appearance of Lord Krishna by speaking this verse, which confirms the truth of the statement “ete camsha-kalah pumsah krishnas tu bhagavan svayam”. In this way, at the end of the Prayers of the Personified Vedas, Narada Muni affirmed that Lord Krishna is the Original Personality of Godhead, the source of all incarnations.

That Lord Krishna is the source of all the guna-avataras (Vishnu who controls the mode of goodness, Brahma  who controls the mode of passion, and Shiva who controls the mode of ignorance) is confirmed in the following verse from Shrimad-Bhagavatam (11.29.7):

 

“When the great pure devotee Uddhava had asked this question, Lord Krishna, who accepts the forms of the three guna-avataras (Vishnu, Brahma and Shiva), who controls the universe with His various potencies just as a child controls a toy, and who is the supreme controller of all the demigods, smiled in a charming and affectionate way and replied to His devotee’s question in the following words.”

 


Krishna does not show all his potencies in ANY  other avataras : It also justifies He is the cause of all causes.

It may be said: Because He is the Supreme Lord, all His forms are perfect and complete. Still, He does not show all His potencies in His forms.87

When a small measure of His potencies is manifest, (His form) is called amsha-avatara. When by His wish many different potencies are manifest, (His form is called) purna-avatara.88

Opulence, sweetness, mercy, and strength are prominent among His many potencies.89

(The different forms of the Supreme Lord are considered) more or less complete according to the extent to which His various potencies are manifest or not manifest.90

A small lamp and a great fire are equally effective in burning a house or something else, but only the great fire brings relief from the sufferings of cold weather. In the same way, the more the Supreme Lord manifests His transcendental qualities, the more the devotees and living entities in general find relief from the cycle of birth and death.91-92

He may be one and He may be many. He may be an amsha-avatara and He may be the origin of the amsha-avataras. Because of His limitless and inconceivable potency nothing is impossible. 93

One form many be manifest as many. (This is described) in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.69.2):
“It is astounding that Lord Shri Krishna, who is one without a second, expanded Himself in sixteen thousand similar forms to marry sixteen thousand queens in their respective homes.”*94

Many forms may combine to become one form. (This is described) in Padma Purana:

“The Supreme Person, Lord Hari, who is the original creator of everything, and who is faultless and beyond the influence of the three modes of material nature, expanded Himself into many forms, and then again all these forms combined together, and only one Lord Hari was manifest.”95

Although He is one, He manifests as many amsha-avataras and He has many different, even mutually contradictory potencies. (This is described) in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.40.7 (where Akrura prays to the Lord):
“Their thoughts placed in You, they worship You, who have one form and many forms.”96


     Krishna is not an expansion of  Kshirodakashayi Vishnu :


Objection:

[Before describing Krishna’s real nature Srila Rupa talks about the people’s objections who identify  Krishna as an expansion of Lord Kshirodakashayi Vishnu who is an expansion of Vaikunthapati Narayana]

Note: Here an imaginary objector argues that Lord Krishna is not the original form of th Lord, but only an expansion of Lord Kshirodakashayi Vishnu. His argument begins in Text 120 and continues until Text 140. Shrila Rupa Gosvami’s refutation of this idea begins in Text 141.

Here someone may object: Is it not so that Lord Krishna is not superior to either the purusha-avatara or to the Supersoul, who is the master of the universe? 120

Furthermore, (it is said) in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (1.3.1-5):

“In the beginning of the creation, the Lord first expanded Himself in the universal form of the purusha incarnation and manifested all the ingredients for the material creation. And thus at first there was the creation of the sixteen principles of material action. This was for the purpose of creating the material universe.*121

“A part of the purusha lies down within the water of the universe, from the navel lake of His body sprouts a lotus stem, and from the lotus flower atop this stem, Brahma, the master of all engineers in the universe, becomes manifest. 122

“It is believed that all the universal planetary systems are situated on the extensive body of the purusha, but He has nothing to do with the created material ingredients. His body is eternally in spiritual existence par excellence. 123

“The devotees, with their perfect eyes, see the transcendental form of the purusha who has thousands of legs, thighs, arms and faces-all extraordinary. In that body there are thousands of heads, ears, eyes and noses. They are decorated with thousands of helmets and glowing earrings and are adorned with garlands. 124

“This form (the second manifestation of the purusha) is the source and indestructible seed of multifarious incarnations within the universe. From the particles and portions of this form, different living entities, like demigods, men and others, are created.” 125

Explanation (In Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.3.1, quoted in Text 121) the word “adau” means “before all the other avataras”, “bhagavan” means “the Supreme Prsonality of Godhead”, “mahad-adibhih” means “beginning with the mahat-tattva”, “loka-sisrikshaya” means “with a desire to create the material planets”, “paurusham” means either “the form of the purusha-avatara” or bearing the name purusha”, “rupam” means “a form of bliss and knowledge”, and “jagrihe” means manifested”.126 [Note:It is the obection part]

“Sambhutam” means “properly or truthfully manifested with the desire to create the material planets”. Shodasha-kalam” means “in whom are the sixteen principles of material action.”127

Following the revelation of scripture, the Vaishnavas define these sixteen principles of action as the Lord’s potencies, which are described in Bhakti-viveka and other scriptures.128

“Shri, Bhu, Kirti, Ila, Lila, Kanti, Vidya, Vimala, Utkarshini, Jnana, Kriya, Yoga, Prahvi, Satya, Ishana, and Anugraha are (the Lord’s) sixteen principal potencies.”129

First the three forms of the purusha-avatara were described, and then the form of the Lord that enters the material universe and becomes the creator was described.130

(In Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.3.2, quoted in Text 122 it is said that from the navel-lake lotus (of the Lord) who enters the universe and lies dow on its waters, (Brahma is manifest). This is very clear.131

(In Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.3.3, quoted in Text 123 it is said that all the planets are situated in the whorl and other parts of the lotus flower spouted from the Lord’s navel-lake.132

His form in spiritual existence par excellence (sattvam urjitam), the Lord lies down.133

In Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.3.4-5, quoted in Texts 124 and 125, it is said that this form of the Lord is origin of His multifarious incarnations.134

As in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (11.4.3):

“When the primeval Lord Narayana created His universal body out of the five elements produced from Himself and then entered within that universal body by His own plenary portion, He thus became known as the Purusha.” 135

The word “narayana” here means “the master of the spiritual sky”. As the purusha-avatara (atma), He created His universal form from the material elements, and then by His amsha-avatara entered the universe. This form is called the purusha-avatara.136

Fearing the question “What is the point of all this?” (he) says: Four-armed Lord Garbhodakashayi Vishnu, who is His vilasa expansion, enters the lotus flower of the material planets and, in a form that bears the name Vishnu, reclines on the ocean of milk.137

Becoming the Supersoul staying in the hearts of living entities in material bodies from the demigods down to immovable creatures, He seems to have many different forms.138

Considered a vilasa expansion, He is described as a form of Lord Vishnu in the Satvata-tantra: “The third (purusha-avatara) stays in all living beings”.139

Then, worshiped by the demigods on the shore of the milk ocean, He descended and bore the name Krishna.  140


Refutation:

Our answer to this argument is the words a disembodied voice spoke to the demigods in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.1.23):141

The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Shri Krishna, who has full potency, will personally appear as the son of Vasudeva. Therefore all the wives of the demigods should also appear in order to satisfy Him.” 142

Explanation

The words “bhagavan purushah parah” in this verse prove that the purusha-avatara that creates the mahat-tattva is an amsha-avatara of Lord Krishna.143

It is seen that that Shrila Shridhara Swami[Kumara Sampradaya] agrees with this view, for in commenting on Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.85.31 he says that the phrase “amsha-bhagena” means “by a part of a part”. In this way it is clear that Shri Krishna is the Original Personality of Godhead, perfect and complete.144

This is confirmed in Devaki’s prayer (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.85.31):

My dear Krishna, I know that Maha-Vishnu, who is lying in the causal ocean of the cosmic manifestation, and who is the source of this whole creation, is simply an expansion of Your plenary portion. Creation, maintenance, and annihilation of this cosmic manifestation are being effected only by Your plenary portion. I am, therefore, taking shelter of You without any reservation.”*145-146 [Note: Mahavishnu the original purusha avataar is said to be an expansion of Krishna’s  plenary portion]

Explanation: The purusha-avatara is a part (amsha) of Lord Krishna. Material nature is a part of the purusha-avatara. The modes are parts of material nature. Creation and other material actions are parts of the modes.147

Also, in the same scripture (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.14.14):

“O Lord of lords, You are the seer of all creation. You are indeed everyone’s dearest life. Are You not, therefore, my father, Narayana? Narayana refers to one whose abode is in the water born from Nara (Garbhodakashayi Vishnu), and that Narayana is Your plenary portion. All Your plenary portions are transcendental. Tbey are absolute and are not creations of maya.”* 148

Explanation:In Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.14.13 Brahma addressed Krishna as Narayana. However, after Brahma saw Lord Krishna’s astonishing opulence, and also after seeing that Krishna is the source of millions of material universes, Brahma became afraid, considering he had comitted an offense, and he proclaimed “Are You not Narayana”.149

By addressing Lord Krishna as “adhisha (Lord of Lords)” Brahma affirmed that Lord Krishna is superior to the innumerable expansions of Kshirodakashayi Vishnu who are also Lords of the creation, and who are all-pervading within the material universe. By addressing Lord Krishna as “sarva-dehinam atma (everyone’s dearest life)”, Brahma affirmed that Lord Krishna is the Supreme father of all conditioned souls confined to material bodies within the material world, and that He is also the father of all the liberated residents of the Vaikuntha spiritual world. By addressing Lord Krishna as “akhila-loka-sakshi (the witness who observes the actions of all living entities)”, Brahma affirmed that Lord Krishna sees everything. By speaking the words “nara-bhu-jalayanat (because of having His abode in the water born from Garbhodakashayi Vishnu)” Brahma explained the derivation of the word “narayana”. By speaking the words “narayano ‘ngam (Lord Narayana is Your plenary portion)”, Brahma affirmed that Lord Narayana is an expansion of Lord Krishna. At the end of this verse Brahma refers to “maya”, the Lord’s illusory energy. We may note here that the spiritual world constitues three fourths of the Lord’s opulence. Only one fourth of the Lord’s potency is taken up by the material energy.150-151

O Lord, in Bhagavad-gita (10.42) You said: “With a single fragment of Myself I pervade and support this entire universe.”
The forms of the purusha-avataras are spiritual. They are not manifestations of the material energy, as Universal Form is.152

In Brahma-samhita (5.48):
“The Brahmas and other lords of the mundane worlds appear from the pores of the Maha-Vishnu and remain alive for the duration of His one exhalation. I adore the primeval Lord, Govinda, for Maha-Vishnu is a portion of His plenary portion.“*153

So If the purusha-avatara is an expansion of Lord Krishna, then Kshirodakashayi Vishnu must be a pastime-incarnation of Lord Krishna. 154

Sri Jiva Goswami explains in Krishna Sandarbha:

That Lord Krishna is the source of all the guna-avataras (Vishnu who controls the mode of goodness, Brahma  who controls the mode of passion, and Shiva who controls the mode of ignorance) is confirmed in the following verse from Shrimad-Bhagavatam (11.29.7):

“When the great pure devotee Uddhava had asked this question, Lord Krishna, who accepts the forms of the three guna-avataras (Vishnu, Brahma and Shiva), who controls the universe with His various potencies just as a child controls a toy, and who is the supreme controller of all the demigods, smiled in a charming and affectionate way and replied to His devotee’s question in the following words.”

In this connection we may note the following statement spoken by Brahma to Lord Krishna (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.14.19):

 

“O Lord Krishna, persons who are unaware of Your inconceivable energy cannot understand that You alone expand Yourself as the creator Brahma, maintainer Vishnu, and annihilator Shiva. Persons who are not in awareness of things as they are contemplate that I, Brahma, am the creator, Vishnu is the maintainer, and Lord Shiva is the annihilator. Actually You are alone everything: creator, maintainer and annihillator.”

That Lord Krishna is the origin of the purusha-avataras, who are the creators of the material universes, is confirmed in the following prayer spoken by Bhishmadeva to Lord Krishna (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.9.32):

 

Let me now invest my thinking, feeling and willing, which were so long engaged in different subjects and occupational duties, in the all-powerful Lord Shri Krishna. He is always self-satisfied, but sometimes, being the leader of the devotees, He enjoys transcendental pleasure by descending on the material world, although from Him only the material world is created.

The following explanation of this verse is found in Shridhara Svami’s commentary:

“In this verse Bhishmadeva prays for attraction to Lord Krishna, which he considers the supreme goal of life, and aside from which there is nothing worth praising. Bhishma also describes the transcendental opulences of the Lord by using the words `sva-sukham upagate’ (full of all transcendental bliss). Bhishma says `kvacid vihartum prakritim upeyushi’ (The Lord sometimes descends to this material sphere to display His transcendental pastimes). The Lord appears in this world and again disappears from it according to His own desire. He is completely independent, and He is not forced to enter the material sphere, as the conditioned souls are. Indeed, Lord Krishna is actually the creator of the cosmic manifestation (`yad-bhava-pravahah’).”

This is also confirmed in the following prayer spoken by the demigods and recorded in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (11.6.16):

O Lord Krishna, You are the origin of the purusha-incarnation who is like the father who impregnates the womb of material nature.

This verse is explained by Shridhara Svami in the following way:

“In this verse the word `tvattah’ means `the purusha-avatara is manifested from You’, and the word `viryam’ means `potency’. `Samadhigatya’ means `having attained’ and `yaya’ means `by the material creative potency maya’. In this way the Lord manifests the material creation (`mahantam dhatte’). To what may this material world be compared? It may be compared to `asya garbham iva’ (like a womb impregnated by the Supreme Lord).”

 


Krishna and Balaram are not  Black and white hair of Lord Vishnu:


 

Objection:

Here someone may object: Is it not so that (Krishna and Balarama), who appeared in the Yadu dynasty, are incarnations of a black and white hair of Lord Vishnu. This is clearly described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (2.7.26):
“When the world is overburdened by the fighting strength of kings who have no faith in God, just to diminish the distress of the world, a black and white hair of the Lord incarnate on the earth. To expand His transcendental glories the Lord acts extraordinarily. No one can properly estimate how great He is.”155-156

Refutation:

(To this objection I reply:) O, don’t interpret this verse in that way. Please listen and I will now give the proper interpretation of the verse. The word “kalaya” means with great artistry”, “sita” means “bound”, and “krishna” means “very dark”. The compound word “sita-Krishna-kesha” means “He whose beautiful black hair is neatly tied”. The word “kalaya” indicates that Lord Krishna was the most expert of all artists. 157

Note: The entire verse may then be interpreted in the following way:

“When the world is overburdened by the fighting strength of kings who have no faith in God, the Lord, just to diminish the distress of the world, descends in His original form, with beautiful black hair neatly tied on His head. The Lord is the most expert of all artists, and just to expand His transcendental glories, He performs many graceful and extraordinary pastimes. No one can properly estimate how great He is.”

The word “kalaya” may also be interpreted to mean “with His plenary portion”. If this meaning is accepted the verse may be interpreted in the following way:

“Lord Krishna, the Supreme performer of pastimes, has beautiful black hair. He descended to the material world, accompanied by His plenary portion (kalaya).”158

[Note: That Krishna appeared with his planary portions will be explained later in detail with scriptural references as it is big topic ]

In the Vishnu-dharmottara Purana Markandya Muni describes to Maharaja Vajra (the king’s) father, Aniruddha, who appears on the ocean of devastation:159

Vajra’s question: “Who is the person in the form of a child that again and again you see at each millenium’s end? I do not know, and I am very eager to know.”160

Shri Markandeya Muni’s reply:

“Again and again I saw the Supreme Lord, the master of the universes. Still, as the kalpa was being destroyed I was bewildered by maya, and I could not understand who He was. When the kalpa’s destruction had passed, I could understand that He was Your father, Aniruddha, the master of the universes, and that He was an avatara manifested from your grandfather, Lord Krishna.“161-162

Explanation: Had it been otherwise (in other words, had it been that Lord Krishna is an avatara of Kshirodakashayi Vishnu), then the best of sages would have said “tam shri-krishnam vijanami prapitamaham” (I know that Your grandfather is Lord Krishna). In this way the mistaken idea (that Lord Krishna is) an avatara of (Lord Vishnu’s) hair is refuted.163-164

Note: What He did say was “prapitamahat” (Aniruddha is an avatara manifested from your grandfather, Lord Krishna).


 

Sri Jiva Goswami’s refutation  on this topic of Black and White hair of Vishnu  : Krishna Sandarbha Anucheda 29 text 54 -91:

Objection:

For example, our critic may quote the following verse from Vishnu Purana (5.1.59):

ujjaharatmanah keshau
sita-krishnau maha-mune

Our critic may interpret this verse to mean:

“O great sage, Lord Vishnu then plucked a white and black hair from His own transcendental body, and these two hairs became His incarnations known as Balarama and Krishna.”

 

Our critic may also quote the following verses from the Mahabharata:

“Lord Vishnu snatched two hairs, one white and one black, from His head; These two hairs entered the wombs of Rohini and Devaki, members of the Yadu dynasty. Balarama was born from Rohini, and Krishna was born of Devaki. Thus Balarama appeared from the first hair, and Krishna appeared from the second hair.”

 

Answer:

 

In his commentary on the verse which begins “bhumeh suretara-varutha” (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 2.7.26), Shridhara Svami gives the proper explanation of these passages from the Vishnu Purana and Mahabharata:

Sometimes in the Vedic literatures Krishna and Balarama are described as white and black `keshas’. In this context the word `kesha’ does not mean `hair’, but it is used in the sense of `splendor’. The phrase `sita-krishna-keshau’ means Balarama and Krishna who have beautiful white and black complexions. It does not mean that black and white hairs grew at a certain time onthe head of the changless Supreme Person.
“The Vishnu Purana explains: `ujjaharatmanah keshau’. This phrase means: `The Personality of Godhead, in His splendid original forms as Balarama and Krishna, relieved the burden of the earth.‘ If one tries to interpret the word `kesha’ in these passages as hair, and contends that Balarama and Krishna are incarnations of two of Lord Vishnu’s hairs, he will contradict the clear statements of many verses in the Vedic literatures, and he will especially contadict the authoritative statement of the verse `krishnas tu bhagavan svayam’ (Shri Krishna is the Original Personality of Godhead) found in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (1.3.28).”

Even if one insists that the word “kesha” must mean “hair” and cannot mean anything else, it is not at all necessary that one interpret that Balarama and Krishna are incarnations of Vishnu. One may also interpret that Vasudeva and Sankarshana are incarnations of a black and white hair from the head of Lord Krishna. Understood in this way, we may conceive of the following conversation between Lord Krishna and the demigods, in order to properly understand these two quotes from the Vishnu Purana and Mahabharata. Lord Krishna may have said to the demigods:

My dear demigods, why do you ask Me to personally appear in the material world? I do not need to personally come, but rather I shall send my expansions of Sankarshana and Vasudeva, who are like white and black hairs on My head. Sankarshana and Vasudeva will certainly fulfill your request by removing the burden of the world.

The statement “ujjaharatmanah keshau” is explained by Bopadeva Gosvami in his commentary “muktaphala-tika:

“The word `keshau’ consists of the two words `ka’ and `ishau’. `Ka’ means `blissful’ and `ishau’ means the two Personalities of Godhead. In the phrase `sita-krishna-keshau’ the word `sita’ is a name of Balarama. This phrase therefore means: `Balarama and Krishna who are the two blissful Personalities of Godhead’.”

The interpretation that these words mean Balarama and Krishna are incarnations of two hairs of Lord Vishnu is not correct, for it is contradicted by the following explanation found in the Hari-vamsha:

After thus instructing the demigods, the Supreme Personality of Godhead travelled on Garuda to a concealed mountain cave. In that cave the Lord assumed His Original form as Lord Krishna. Ordering Garuda to wait for Him in that cave, the Lord then descended to earth in His original form.

What to speak of the Personality of Godhead, even the inferior demigods are free from the defects of old-age. Because the Personality of Godhead is always free from the symptoms of age, His hairs do not turn gray or white with age, as those of a conditioned human being. The Vedic literatures always describe the hairs of the Supreme Lord as black; there is no description of white hairs, hairs either naturally white, or turned white with age in the spiritual body of the Personality of  Godhead. For this reason the story of white and black hairs from the head of Lord Vishnu is not very plausible. The learned will not accept it.

In the descriptions of Krishna and Balarama’s descent to this material world, we generally do not find any mention of the word “kesha” to describe them. In the following quote from the Nrisimha Purana, They are described as “sita-krishna” (white and black), without any use of the word “kesha” which our critics are so eager to interpret as “hair”:

Lord Krishna and Balarama, the original black and white forms of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is full of all transcendental potencies, appeared in the Yadu dynasty as the two sons of Vasudeva and Devaki. In the future these two transcendental personalities will kill King Kamsa and many other demons.”


 

Objection:

Someone may object: Very well then, we shall accept that the word “kesha” means “expansion,” and the keshavatara simply is an explanation of how Krishna is an expansion of Lord Vishnu.

Answer:
To this I reply: No. This should not be concluded. Krishna is the Original Personality of Godhead (adi-purusha), full of all transcendental potencies.

Objection:
Another objection may be raised: Krishna, Vishnu, and other words are used to indicate the Personality of Godhead and no distinction is made between them in the Vedic literatures. Why are you so eager to say that Krishna is the original form and Vishnu is the expansion. All the forms of the Lord should be considered equal, without any distinction.

Answer:
To this I reply: Actually Krishna is specifically described as the Original Personality of Godhead, and the day when He appeared in this world is especially famous, more famous than the appearance-day of any other form of the Lord.

This is confirmed in the following verse from the Mahabharata:

Krishna, the son of Vasudeva, is the eternal Original Personality of Godhead (Bhagavan). He is the supreme Brahman, free from all material contamination, and He is the object of the yogis’ meditation. He is glorified in the pages of this book.

That Krishna is beyond the influence of time is confirmed in the following statement by the residents of Dvaraka-puri (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.11.6)

O Lord, You are worshiped by all demigods like Brahma, the four Sanas and even the King of heaven. You are the ultimate rest for those who are really aspiring to achieve the highest benefit of life. You are the supreme transcendental Lord, and inevitable time cannot exert its influence upon You.

The false notion that Krishna and Balarama are incarnations of a black and white hair of Lord Vishnu is dispelled in the Prabhasa-khanda, which explains that whiteness of hair is produced in old age, and because even the subordinate demigods, what to speak of Lord Vishnu, the controller of the demigods, remain always free from old-age, their hair never turns white with age. It is not possible that Lord Vishnu have white hairs, because He is beyond the influence of time, and therefore this conception of Lord Vishnu’s white hair pushed forward by the dry renunciants is not acceptable.

Other misinterprated statements:

Similar other faulty statements may also be found in some portions of the scriptures. For example, the Garuda Purana explains:

“I offer my respectful obeisances unto the law of karma, because of which Shiva carries a skull in his hand and wanders about as a beggar, and because of which Vishnu was hurled into the painful abyss of having to assume ten incarnations within the material world.”

The author’s intention in this passage was to emphasize the uncheckable power of karma, although in order to do this he had spoken some things that are not actually true. The description of Krishna and Balarama as Lord Vishnu’s hairs is a similar untrue story.

The following metaphorical statement in the scriptures may also be quoted to illustrate how an author may speak something untrue in order to emphasize a point:

Alas, who is able to describe the evils of gold? Gold is certainly as intoxicating as the poisonous drink dhutura.

Statements in the Shaivite Puranas should not be accepted unless they are corroborated by the Vaishnava Puranas. This is confirmed in the Shaivite Puranas (Skanda Purana) where Lord Shiva says to Karttikeya:

Statements in the Shaivite Puranas should be accepted only if they are confirmed in the Vaishnava Puranas.

The followers of Lord Shiva may try to present a different conclusion, but they are simply contradicting the words of their own master, recorded in their own scripture. From this statement of Lord Shiva we may understand that the Shaivite Puranas are not a very reliable source of spiritual information. They are not actually able to purify the conditioned souls, and their position is described in the following statement of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (1.8.52):

“It is not possible to filter muddy water through mud or purify a wine-stained pot with wine.”

On should not therefore rely on the impure statements of the Shaivite Puranas.

The inferiority of the Shaivite Puranas is confirmed in the Uttara Khanda of the Padma Purana, which explains that the Shaivite Puranas are intended for those in the mode of ignorance. The Matsya Purana also confirms that the Shaivite Puranas are full of faulty and ignorant conclusions.

Without understanding the Shrimad-Bhagavatam, one cannot properly understand the philosophy of spiritual life. An example of this is Romaharshana Suta. Because of not studying the Bhagavatam, Romaharshana had not properly understood the exalted position of Lord Balarama. Because of an offense to Lord Balarama, Romaharshana was killed by the Lord. From this we may understand the importance of Shrimad-Bhagavatam. Without reference to the Bhagvatam, one cannot conclusively understand the nature of the Absolute Truth.
That certain sages may sometimes present false conclusions, which may sometimes even become recorded in the Puranas, is confirmed in the following statement of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.77.30):

O King, some sages have said that Lord Krishna became bewildered by the mystic jugglery of Shalva. Such conclusions should not be accepted, for the contradict the conclusion of all Vedic literatures, Lord Krishna never becomes bewildered.”

From this we may understand supreme authority of Shrimad-Bhagavatam. Any scriptural explanation that contradicts the version of the Bhagavatam should be rejected.

Contradictory statements in srutis:

We may sometimes notice contradictions in the instructions of the Shruti. The two quotes which follow may serve as an example of such a contradiction within the texts of the Shruti.

By performing the karma-kanda rituals of the Vedas one becomes ruined.
-Chandogya Upanishad 8.1.6

By performing the karma-kanda rituals of the Vedas we have become demigods eligible to drink soma-rasa.
-Rig-mantra 8.48.3

If a speaker contradicts himself, then his words are not very much appreciated by the speaker of Shrimad-Bhagavatam:

They who are learned are not inclined to accept the statements of one who contradicts himself.
-Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.77.30

Reconcile this apparent contradiction

Suta Gosvami speaks the following verse to reconcile this apparent contradiction in the statements of the scriptures (Mahabharata, Udyoga-parva):

The truths of spiritual life are inconceivable to the crippled materialistic brain. Simply by logic and philosophy one cannot expect to properly understand them.

Also, in the story of Candra-kalankapatti-karana in the Prabhasa-khanda of the Skanda Purana, in the description of Lord Krishna’s appearance, Krishna is described as Lord Vishnu Himself. By using the words “svayam vishnuh (Vishnu Himself)”, the concocted idea that Krishna is an incarnation of Lord Vishnu’s hair is refuted by Vyasadeva.

The idea that Krishna is an incarnation of Lord Vishnu’s hair should not be accepted, for it is thus refuted by Vyasa. Only foolish persons with a childlike mentality will insist that the word “kesha” in the phrase “keshavatara” from the Vishnu Purana should be interpreted to mean “a hair”.

Because it is contradicted by so many descriptions in the Vedic literatures, the statement that Lord Krishna is an incarnation of Lord Vishnu’s hair must be either a trick to bewilder the atheists, an outlandish playful metaphor, or a falsity spoken in ignorance of the actual nature of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

The actual meaning of the word “kesha” when used in a name of the Supreme Personality of Godhead is explained by the Lord in the Mahabharata in the description of the thousand names of Lord Vishnu. There the Lord Himself says:

The effulgence of My transcendental body is known by the word `kesha’. O best of the sages, because I am the source of the Brahman effulgence, the learned devotees, who know everything, call Me by the name `Keshava’.”

We may also note in this connection that although the word “kesha” is used in the Vishnu Purana, it is not used in the many other descriptions of Lord Krishna’s appearance found in the Vedic literaturs. That the word “kesha” should mean “effulgence” is supported by Narada Muni’s explanation in the Moksha-dharma that the Lord appears in a variety of forms and colors. The explanation of the Vishnu Purana that the Lord appears as “shukla-krishna-keshau” or “white and black keshas” may be understood to mean that the Lord appears in white and black forms. This may be understood to refer to Lord Vasudeva and Lord Sankarshana, or it may also refer to Lord Aniruddha.

“The transcendental Personality of Godhead is indirectly associated with the three modes of material nature, namely passion, goodness, and ignorance, and just for the material world’s creation, maintenance, and destruction, He accepts the three qualitative forms of Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva. Of these three, all human beings can derive ultimate benefit from Vishnu, the form of the quality of goodness.”

That Lord Shiva is an expansion of Lord Sankarshana is confirmed in the following prose statement of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (5.17.16):

“In Ilavrita-varsha, Lord Shiva is always encircled by ten billion maidservants of goddess Durga, who minister to him. The quadruple expansion of the Supreme Lord is composed of Vasudeva, Pradyumna, Aniruddha and Sankarshana. Sankarshana, the fourth expansion, is certainly transcendental, but because His activities of destruction in the material world are in the mode of ignorance, He is known as tamasi, the Lord’s form in the mode of ignorance. Lord Shiva knows that Sankarshana is the original cause of his own existence, and thus he always meditates upon Him in trance by chanting the following mantra.”

Therefore the statement of the Vishnu Purana (ujjaharatmanah keshau sita-krishnau maha-mune) should be understood in the following way: The word “atmanah” means “from Himself”, the word “keshau” means the two incarnations Vasudeva and Sankarshana, who have black and white complexions, and the word “ujjahara” means “manifested.” The entire statement means “The Lord then appeared as Vasudeva and Sankarshana, who have black and white complexions.

Just as by seeing one face of the Mountain Sumeru, one can understand the nature of the entire mountain, in the same way, by properly understanding this verse from Vishnu Purana, one will be able to know the actual nature of Lord Krishna’s appearance in the material world.

An explanation of the verses from Mahabharata quoted in Text 56 follows:

In these verses the word “udvavarhe” means that the Lord appears by His own mystic potency. The word “ca” (also) refers the reader to the demigods’ prayers recorded in the previous verses.

The word “api” (even) in connection with the word “udvavarhe” (manifested) (“Even if Krishna and Balarama had appeared from Lord Vishnu”) indicate that in reality Vasudeva and Sankarshana are emanations of Krishna and Balarama.

An intricate sequence of events is hinted by the use of the phrase “tau capi (the two of them, also, also)” in this passage from the Mahabharata. First: Vasudeva and Sankarshana (the purusha-incarnations) entered the wombs of Devaki and Rohini. Then: Krishna and Balarama (the original forms of Vasudeva and Sankarshana) entered the wombs of Devaki and Rohini “also”. Then, within the womb of Devaki, Vasudeva and Krishna joined to become a single Krishna, and within Rohini’s womb Sankarshana and Balarama joined to become a single Balarama. In this way the word “api” (also) refers to the joining of Krishna-Vasudeva and Balarama-Sankarshana. In other words, Lord Krishna sent His immediate vishnu-tattva expansions into the material world before He personally came, and when He personally came, He and His vishnu-tattva forms became united into a single form. This is confirmed in the following statements:

1. “tayor eko balabhadro babhuva” (the two of Them then became one Balarama).
2. “nara-narayano bhavet. harir eva bhaven narah” (Nara-Narayana Rishis joined to become a single Lord Hari).

Another meaning of this passage from the Mahabharata which explains that Krishna appears as a “kesha” is that “Keshava” is specifically the name of Lord Krishna when He appears as the monarch of Mathura. In this way, the passage from the Mahabharata may be paraphrased: “The original Krishna then appeared in His feature as Keshava (the monarch of Mathura).”

In the Shrimad-Bhagavatam (2.7.26) Lord Krishna is described as “sita-krishna-kesha“. This does not mean that Krishna is an incarnation of a black hair from Lord Vishnu. The actual explanation of this word is found in the Nrisimha Purana, where the Lord explains: “sita-krishne ca mac-chakti” (I appear in many vishnu-tattva forms, which have complexions of white, black, and many other colors).

Because this phrase from the Bhagavatam (sita-krishna-keshah) is somewhat ambiguous, the Bhagavatam should not be considered faulty. The phrase from the Bhagavatam describing Krishna’s bewilderment when Shalva tricked Him (evam vadanti rajarshe) is described as an explanation given by some sages. In other words, although Krishna is never actually bewildered, some sages said that He was bewildered on that occasion. Therefore the statements of the Bhagavatam sometimes contain the opinions of certain sages according to their partial understanding. Sometimes the Original Personality of Godhead chooses to conceal Himself and He appears to be something that He actually is not. Because the Lord sometimes does not reveal His actual nature, therefore it is said that the sages describe Him according to their realization. In other words, the opinions of the sages sometimes present an incomplete view of the Supreme Lord. It is possible to interpret this Bhagavatam verse (2.7.26) (which describes the “sita-krishna-keshah”) as such a partial understanding, even though it is recorded in the Bhagavatam.

Lord Krishna is therefore the Original Personality of Godhead, and the phrase “kalaya sita-krishna-keshah” means “The Suprme Personality of Godhead, who expands as the white and black purusha-incarnations (Lord Sankarshana and Lord Vasudeva).”

According to the description of Lord Krishna’s advent found in the Hari-vamsha (and quoted in Text 59 of this anuccheda), all the potencies of Lord Narayana are present within the form of Lord Krishna. Actually, all the forms of the Personality of Godhead are present within the original form of Krishna.

Sarva-samvadini Comment

That Lord Krishna is not an incarnation of one of Lord Vishnu’s hairs, but is directly the Original Supreme Personality of Godhead is also confirmed in the following statement of the Hari-vamsha:

“The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Hari, Whom even the demigods cannot approach, then appeared in that mountain cave in His primeval original transcendental form. After being worshipped by Brahma , Shiva, and Vishnu, the magnanimous Supreme Lord appeared within the home of Maharaja Vasudeva.” text 106

Next  we come to the big discussion.


Lord Krishna is not a vilasa expansion of Lord Maha-Vaikuntha-natha Narayana :


Part 1:

Objection:

[Here an objector tries to justify that Lord Krishna is a vilasa expansion of Lord Maha-Vaikuntha-natha Narayana ]

Note: The imaginary objector’s argument continues until Text 178. In Text 179 Shrila Rupa Gosvami begins his reply.

Here someone may object: Is it not so that although Lord Krishna may be superior to the purusha-avataras, Lord Vasudeva, who is served by all opulences, who appears in many forms in the spiritual world of three quarters of the Lord’s opulence, whose charming splendor is more glorious than billions of rising suns, who is sometimes dark as a new raincloud and sometimes splendid as gold, who is famous as a vilasa-avatara of Lord Maha-Vaikuntha-natha, who is the Supersoul, and who is endowed with strength, knowledge, heroism, and glory, is superior to Him? 165

The catur-vyuha expansions (Vasudeva, Sankarshana, Pradyumna, and Aniruddha) are collectively known by the name “maha-avastha” (the most important form of the Lord). The first of Them (Lord Vasudeva) is supremely worshipable. He is said to be the controlling Deity of consciousness and the origin of pure goodness.166

Shri Sankarshana is considered His amsha-avatara. Sankarshana is the second member of the catur-vyuha. He known by the name “jiva” because He is the birthplace of all the jivas (living entities).167

His bodily luster is sweeter than many billions of full autumn moons. He is the worshipable Deity of false-ego. Ananta Shesha is His amsha-avatara. As the Supersoul in the hearts of Lord Shiva, impiety, snakes, death, and the community of demons, He is the cause of the universe’s dissolution.168

Lord Pradyumna is the third member of the catur-vyuha. He is a vilasa-avatara of Lord Sankarshana. He is the Deity of intelligence, and He is worshipped by the intelligent. He served by goddess Lakshmi, who recites prayers in Ilavrita-varsha. He is said sometimes to be the color of pure gold and sometimes He is splendid as a dark cloud. He is the cause of the universe’s creation. Kamadeva is His amsa-avatara. As the Supersoul of Brahma, the prajapatis, Kamadeva, and those attached to sense-gratification, He creates everything.169

Lord Aniruddha is the fourth member of the catur-vyuha. He is said to be an amsha-avatara of Lord Pradyumna. Lord Aniruddha is the Deity of the mind, and He is worshiped by the philosophers. He is the color of a dark cloud. He carefully protects the universe. As the Supersoul of piety, the Manus, the demigods, and the earthly kings, He maintains the universe.170

In the Moksha-dharma it is said that Lord Pradyumna is the Deity of mind, and Lord Aniruddha is the Deity of false-ego.171

This explanation is corroborated by all the Pancaratra-shashtras.172

In Padma Purana it is said that the catur-vyuha expansions, which begin with Lord Vasudeva, preside over the four directions of the spiritual world.173

They also reside in the material world. (Lord Vasudeva) resides in the city of Devavati in Jalavriti Vaikuntha, (Lord Sankarshana) resides in the city of Dvaraka in Vishnuloka above Satyaloka, (Lord Pradyumna) resides in the city of Airavati in Shvetadvipa north of the pure ocean, and (Lord Aniruddha) resides on the couch of Ananta’s lap in the ocean of milk.174

The Satvata-tantra describes nine vyuha expansions of the Personality of Godhead as: 1. Vasudeva, 2. Sankarshana, 3. Pradyumna, 4. Aniruddha, 5. Narayana, 6. Nrisimha 7. Hayagriva 8. Varaha, and 9. Brahma. The Brahma mentioned here should be understood to be the previously described avatara of Lord Hari.175

However, the catur-vyuhas (Vasudeva, Sankarshana, Pradyumna, and Aniruddha), who have four splendid arms and are decorated with eternal and limitless transcendental opulences, are the best.176

Lord Vasudeva is flooded with perfect transcendental bliss. His opulences have no limit. Because He is the ruler of the spiritual sky He is the first of all transcendental Deities.177

Therefore I think the person named Krishna who descended (to the material world) was an avatara of Lord Vasudeva for this is explained in all scriptures.178

Note: The opponent ends His argument here. Shrila Rupa Gosvami begins his reply in the next text.

Additional References by blogger:

Vasudeva, Sankarshana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha are the names of the direct personal expansions of the Supreme Godhead, O brahmana Saunaka. SB 12.11.21

The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Hari, thus appears in four personal expansions, each exhibiting major limbs, minor limbs, weapons and ornaments. Through these distinct features, the Lord maintains the four phases of existence.SB 12.11.23

[Narada gave Citraketu the following mantra.] O Lord, O Supreme Personality of Godhead, who are addressed by the omkara [pranava], I offer my respectful obeisances unto You. O Lord Vasudeva, I meditate upon You. O Lord Pradyumna, Lord Aniruddha and Lord Sankarsana, I offer You my respectful obeisances. O reservoir of spiritual potency, O supreme bliss, I offer my respectful obeisances unto You, who are self-sufficient and most peaceful. O ultimate truth, one without a second, You are realized as Brahman, Paramatma and Bhagavan and are therefore the reservoir of all knowledge. I offer my respectful obeisances unto You.(SB 6.16.18-19)


Refutation:

Vasudeva Krishna is superior to Vasudeva of catur vyuh expanded from Narayana:

That is not logical. Please listen. The answer (to your objection) is now given. Lord Krishna, the son of Devaki, is said to be superior to Lord Vasudeva.179

[Note: Vasudeva here refers to the Vasudeva of catur vyuh expanded from Lord Narayana.Vasudeva krishna, the son of Devaki is superior to the Vasudeva mentioned above in the objection . ]

In Shrimad-Bhagavatam (1.3.28): “All of the above-mentioned incarnations are either plenary portions or portions of the plenary portions of the Lord, but Lord Shri Krishna is the original Personality of Godhead.” 180

Explanation:Here the word “pumsah” means “of the purusha-avatara”, “amshah” means “the avataras headed by Varaha and Rishabhadeva”, “kalah” means “the avataras headed by the Kumaras, “tu (but)” distinguishes Lord Krishna from these other forms of the Godhead, bhagavan” means the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and svayam (personally)” refutes the idea that Krishna is an avatara of Vasudeva. 181

In Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.14.2) it is said:

My dear Lord, Your form is transcendental to all material elements. I can understand that You have mercy upon me because You are revealing that form, standing before me like a small child. But although I am Lord Brahma, the so-called creator of this universe, I am unable to ascertain the transcendental potencies of Your body. And if I am unable to understand the spiritual potency of Your child-like body, then what can I understand about Your transcendental pastimes?” 182

Explanation: {In this sloka} Here “Deva” is a name for Lord Vasudeva, the first of the catur-vyuha expansions, “deva-vapushah” means of He who has the form of Lord Vasudeva“. “mahi” means “glory”, “sakshat” means “of You”, “kah” means “the demigod Brhama” avasitum” means “to understand”; “na ise” means “I am not able”, and “atma-sukhanubhuteh” means “of You whose form is spiritual”.183

We may note the use of the phrase “kim uta” (what to speak of) in this verse. This phrase is used when comparing something great to another thing of lesser stature. An example may be seen in the following sentence: “The kustubha jewel is more effulgent than hundreds and millions of suns, what to speak of small lamp”.184-185

In another way: A great darkness is not able to extinguish even a small lamp, what to speak of the kaustubha jewel, which is more brilliant than millions of suns.186

The phrase “what to speak of” is used when a great thing is compared to something small. That small thing is then again compared to something even smaller.187

The word “mad-anugrahasya” may be understood to mean “of You who is very merciful to me by revealing this unprecedented and wonderful form”.188

“Svecchamayasya” means “He who acts to fulfill all the desires of His devotees.” The words “na bhutamayasya” (He who is not the resting place of all living entities) refute the idea that Lord Krishna is the purusha-avatara, who is the resting place of all living entities.189

The phrase “neshe mahi tv avasitum manasantarena” means “O Lord, although it may be possible for someone to understand something of Your transcendental glories by meditating on them without any deviation, still, I cannot understand anything about Your glories. For me Your transcendental opulences are inconceivable”.190

In these words the demigod Brahma, who properly understands the entire situation, affirms that Lord Krishna’s glory is greater than the glory of both Vasudeva (the purusha-avatara) and the impersonal Brahman. 191


The 1st catur vyuh expands from Lord Krishna , The master of Goloka :

In the Svayambhuva-agama’s meditation on the fourteen-syllable mantra it is said that the catur-vyuha forms, beginning with Lord Vasudeva, are avataras of Lord Krishna. 192

In the Kramadi-dipika’s description of the eight-syllable mantra it is said that the catur-vyuha forms, beginning with Lord Vasudeva, are avataras of Lord Krishna, the master of Gokula. 193

Gopal Tapani Upanishad : Chapter2 text 48:

“There are these verses: Lord Krishna, accompanied by His three potencies, and by Balarama, Aniruddha, Pradyumna, and Rukmini, stays in delightful Mathura Puri, which is worshipped by Brahma and the other demigods and protected by the conch, cakra, club, and sarnga bow.

Gopal Tapani Upanishad : Chapter2: Text 101 :
“Om. Obeisances to Krishna, who is Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna, and Aniruddha. Om tat sat. Bhur Bhuvah and Svah. Obeisances, obeisances to Him.”

Note: The above is a reference of catur vyuh coming from Lord Krishna . It is not to be confused as contradictory . Actually there are two catur vyuh forms. First from Krishna(Golokapati ) and 2nd from Narayana who is an expansion of Golokesh Krishna . Confusion occurs as these two catur vyuhs have not been discussed in the same place or may have been explained but that vedic scripture is lost. The Vasudeva of 1st catur vyuh expanded from Krishna is Vasudeva krishna of Dwaraka. The Vasudeva from the 2nd catur vyuh as expanded from Narayana  is another Vasudeva who resides in the city of Devavati in Jalavriti Vaikuntha as mentioned in the objection. That Vasudeva Krishna is an expansion of Golokapati Krishna will be explained later.


Balaram is Krishna’s first expansion who expands as other incarnations : 

 

Bhagavat Gita chapter 10: text 37

vṛṣṇīnāṁ vāsudevo ‘smi
pāṇḍavānāṁ dhanañjayaḥ
munīnām apy ahaṁ vyāsaḥ
kavīnām uśanā kaviḥ

Of the descendants of Vṛṣṇi I am Vāsudeva, and of the Pāṇḍavas I am Arjuna. Of the sages I am Vyāsa, and among great thinkers I am Uśanā.

Sridhara Swami Commentary:Rudra Vaisnava Sampradaya:
Of the Vrishnis or His apparent lineage, Lord Krishna’s vibhuti or divine, transcendental opulence is Vasudeva which means the son of Vasudeva. It would not be acceptable for Lord Krishna to be naming Himself because He is describing His vibhuti and so the only other son of Vasudeva is Balarama who is Lord Krishna’s first and foremost expansion and who expands as all the other incarnations with the exception of Narayana the ruler of all the spiritual planets in the spiritual realm of Vaikuntha who is Lord Krishna’s direct expansion.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:Kumara Vaisnava Sampradaya:
Among the descendants of the Vrishni lineage Lord Krishna’s vibhuti or divine, transcendental opulence is the son of Vasudeva. As Lord Krishna is describing His vibhuti it is not logical that He would be would be referring to Himself. The only other son of Vasudeva is Balarama who is the first expansion of Lord Krishna and the direct source of all other avataras or incarnations including Rama and Vishnu. So Lord Krishna’s vibhuti as the son of Vasudeva is the all powerful Balarama.
Ramanuja’s Commentary: Sri Vaisnava Sampradaya:
The Vrishni lineage descends from King Yayati and Queen Devayani from which Vasudeva is the sixth generation of descendants. Lord Krishna’s vibhuti or divine, transcendental opulence cannot be referring to Himself as the son of Vasudeva because He is describing His vibhuti. The only other son of Vasudeva is Balarama who is Lord Krishna’s first expansion and manifests every incarnation including Vishnu. So Balarama is the vibhuti referred to here.
Chaitanya Mahaprabhu’s teaching : Brahma Madhava Gaudiya Sampradaya: 

CC Madhya 20.186- “The chief quadruple expansions are named Vāsudeva, Saṅkarṣaṇa, Pradyumna and Aniruddha. These are called prābhava-vilāsa.
CC Madhya 20.187 “Balarāma, who has the same original form as Kṛṣṇa, is Himself a cowherd boy in Vṛndāvana, and He also considers Himself a member of the kṣatriya race in Dvārakā(Sankarshana of 1st catur vyuh). Thus His color and dress are different, and He is called a pastime form of Kṛṣṇa.
CC Madhya 20.188 “Śrī Balarāma is a vaibhava-prakāśa manifestation of Kṛṣṇa. He is also manifested in the original quadruple expansions of Vāsudeva, Saṅkarṣaṇa, Pradyumna and Aniruddha. These are prābhava-vilāsa expansions with different emotions.
CC Madhya 20.189 “The first expansion of the caturvyūha, quadruple forms, is unique. There is nothing to compare with Them. These quadruple forms are the source of unlimited quadruple forms.
CC Madhya 20.190 “These four prābhava pastime forms of Lord Kṛṣṇa reside eternally in Dvārakā and Mathurā.
CC Madhya 20.191 “From the original quadruple expansions, twenty-four forms are manifested. They differ according to the placement of the weapons in Their four hands. They are called vaibhava-vilāsa.
CC Madhya 20.192 “Lord Kṛṣṇa again expands, and within the paravyoma, the spiritual sky, He is situated in fullness as the four-handed Nārāyaṇa, accompanied by expansions of the original quadruple form.
CC Madhya 20.193 “Thus the original quadruple forms again manifest Themselves in a second set of quadruple expansions. The residences of these second quadruple expansions cover the four directions.
CC Madhya 20.255“Lord Saṅkarṣaṇa is Lord Balarāma. Being the predominator of the creative energy, He creates both the material and the spiritual world.
CC Madhya 20.256 “That original Saṅkarṣaṇa [Lord Balarāma] is the cause of both the material and the spiritual creation. He is the predominating Deity of egotism, and by the will of Kṛṣṇa and the power of the spiritual energy, He creates the spiritual world, which consists of the planet Goloka Vṛndāvana and the Vaikuṇṭha planets.
CC Madhya 20.257 “Although there is no question of creation as far as the spiritual world is concerned, the spiritual world is nonetheless manifested by the supreme will of Saṅkarṣaṇa. The spiritual world is the abode of the pastimes of the eternal spiritual energy.
CC Madhya 20.258 “ ‘Gokula, the supreme abode and planet, appears like a lotus flower that has a thousand petals. The whorl of that lotus is the abode of the Supreme Lord, Kṛṣṇa. This lotus-shaped supreme abode is created by the will of Lord Ananta.’
CC Madhya 20.262 “ ‘Balarāma and Kṛṣṇa are the original efficient and material causes of the material world. As Mahā-Viṣṇu and the material energy, They enter into the material elements and create the diversities by multi-energies. Thus They are the cause of all causes.’
CC Madhya 20.268 “That original Personality of Godhead, named Saṅkarṣaṇa, first lies down in the river Virajā, which serves as a border between the material and the spiritual world. As Kāraṇābdhiśāyī Viṣṇu, He is the original cause of the material creation.

Part 2:

Another set of objection to prove that Krishna is the avatar of Lord Narayana,the master of Vaikunthaloka

Objection:

[Note: From Verse 226-299 are opponent’s explanation of Narayana and Maha-vaikuntha as supreme and Krishna[Vasudeva] is a vilasa avatara of Narayana.]

(Here someone may object:) I understand your argument. You have said that Shri Krishna is an avatara of Lord Narayana, the master of Vaikunthaloka.226 [The objector is misunderstanding the above references]

His birth and other pastimes and His exalted nature declare that He is a vilasa-avatara of Lord Narayana.227

Lord Narayana’s supreme position is described in th shruti, smriti, and tantras. No one is equal to or greater than Him. Before the creation (of the material planets), during the Brahma-kalpa, Lord Narayana revealed His own form in the Vaikuntha world to the demigod Brahma.228

(This is described) in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (2.9.9-16):

“The Personality of Godhead, being thus very much satisfied with the penance of Lord Brahma, was pleased to manifest His personal abode, Vaikuntha, the supreme planet above all others. This transcendental abode of the Lord is adored by all self-realized persons freed from all kinds of miseries and fear of illusory existence.*229

“In that personal abode of the Lord, the material modes of ignorance and passion do not prevail, nor is there any of their influence in goodness. There is no predominance of the influence of time, so what to speak of the illusory, external energy; it cannot enter that region. Without discrimination, both the demigods and the demons worship the Lord as devotees.*230

“The inhabitants of the Vaikuntha planets are described as having a glowing sky-bluish complexion. Their eyes resemble lotus flowers, their dress is of yellowish color, and their bodily features very attractive. They are just the age of growing youths, they all have four hands, they are all nicely decorated with pearl necklaces with ornamental medallions, and they all appear to be effulgent. Some of them are effulgent like coral and diamonds in complexion and have garlands on their heads, blooming like lotus flowers, and some wear earrings.*231

“The Vaikuntha planets are also surrounded by various airplanes, all glowing and brilliantly situated. These airplanes belong to the great mahatmas or devotees of the Lord. The ladies are as beautiful as lightning because of their celestial complexions, and all these combined together appear just like the sky decorated with both clouds and lightning.*232

“The goddess of fortune in her transcendental form is engaged in the loving service of the Lord’s lotus feet, and being moved by the black bees, followers of spring, she is not only engaged in variegated pleasure-service to the Lord, along with her constant companions-but is also engaged in singing the glories of the Lord’s activities.*233

“Lord Brahma saw in the Vaikuntha planets the Personality of Godhead, who is the Lord of the entire devotee community, the Lord of the goddess of fortune, the Lord of all sacrifices, and the Lord of the universe, and who is served by the foremost servitors like Nanda, Sunanda, Prabala and Arhana, His immediate associates.*234.a

“The Personality of Godhead, seen leaning favorably towards His loving servitors, His very sight intoxicating and attractive, appeared to be very much satisfied. He had a smiling face decorated with an enchanting reddish hue. He was dressed in yellow robes and wore earrings and a helmet on his head. He had four hands, and His chest was marked with the lines of the goddess of fortune.*234.b

“The Lord was seated on His throne and was surrounded by different energies like the four, the sixteen, the five, and the six natural opulences, along with other insignificant energies of the temporary character. But He was the factual Supreme Lord, enjoying His own abode.”*234.c

(In the verse quoted in Text 229,) “yat” means “of which”, “param” means “further supreme” (there is no place superior to this abode), {sanklesha” means “five kinds of material afflictions, beginning with ignorance”, “vimoha” means illusion”, and “sadhvasam” means “fear of material existance”. These material disadvantages do not exist in that supreme abode, where the Supreme Personality of Godhead is personally manifest, and where He is adored by they who are like Him. 235

(An explanation of the verse quoted in Text 230 follows:) There the material modes of ignorance and passion do not prevail, nor is there any of their influence in goodness. There are no material modes of nature, and there is no predominance of the influence of time, which destroys all things. There is no illusory, external energy, the root of so many unwanted things, so how can there be the mahat-tattva and other material transformations? In this way the eternal perfection of Vaikunthaloka is described.236

(An explanation of the verse quoted in Text 231 follows:) There the great devotees of Lord Hari have complexions that are either blue, red, green, or white. They worship the Lord, who manifests forms with these different colors, and they attain forms and colors like those of the Lord they worship. Or, from beginningless time their bodily luster is like the Lord’s.237

(An explanation of the verse quoted in Text 233 follows:) There goddess Shri, who is an amsha-avatara of Padma-devi, the goddess of fortune, and who is the form of transcendental opulence, respectfully engages in devotional service along with many different transcendental opulences. The word kusumakara” means “springtime, the king of seasons”, and “anugaih” means “followers”. The followers of spring are summer, monsoon-season, and other seasons.
The goddess of fortune is also engaged in singing the glories (gayati) of the Lord’s activities (priya-karma). Gayati” (singing) here is a present-active-participle (satri), and “karma” (activities) is formed by adding the affix “tin” to the verbal root kri”.238

(An explanation of the verses quoted in Texts 234 a and b follows:) He saw the Supreme Personality of Godhead in the Vaikuntha planets. How was the Lord described? The very sight of the Lord was intoxicating and attractive. Because the appearance of the Lord created such intense bliss among the devotees, it is said that the sight of the Lord was like an intoxication. The Lord is also described as being bluish in complexion and dressed in yellow garments.239-240

Text 234 c’s description of the Lord’s Maha-yoga potencies will now be explained in the words of Padma Purana, Uttara-khanda:241

“The Smriti-shastra describes four potencies: 1. hladini (bliss), 2. kirti (fame), 3. karuna (mercy), and 4. tushti (satisfaction). Sixteen potencies have already been described.242

“There are also five kinds of knowledge, beginning with sankhya-yoga.”243

They are described in the Pancaratra:”Sankhya, yoga, renunciation, austerity, and devotional service to Lord Keshava are the five branches of knowledge by which a wise man attains Lord Hari.”244

The Lord is surrounded by these 25 extraordinary potencies, beginning with opulence and piety, eternally. In the demigod Brahma and other jivas these potencies are only briefly and slightly present. The Lord enjoys pastimes in His abode of Vaikuntha eternally, what to speak of the pastimes He enjoys as the abode of Goddess Shri.245

In Bhargava-Tantra: “The possessor of potencies (the Supreme Personality of Godhead) and the potencies themselves (the individual living entities) are not different. That they are not different is explained in the passage beginning with the word `sveccha'”.246

Furthermore, in Padma Purana (Uttara-khanda 255.57-64):
“On the border of the material and spiritual worlds flows the auspicious Viraja river, whose waters were manifest from the perspiration of the Personified Vedas.247

“On the far shore of that river, in the spiritual sky, is the eternal, imperishable, unlimited spiritual world, which is three fourths of all existance, which is made of pure goodness, which never decays, which is the abode of Brahman, which is splendid as countless millions of suns and fires, which never withers, which contains all knowledge, which is splendid, which is not touched by any of the periods of cosmic devastation, which is immeasurable, which is free from old-age, which is the eternal spiritual reality, which is free from material states beginning with wakefulness and sleep, which has a golden splendor, which is the abode of liberation, which brings spiritual bliss, which has no equal or superior, which has no beginning or end, which is auspicious, which is wonderfully glorious, which is charming, which is eternal, and which is an ocean of bliss. These are the qualities of Lord Vishnu’s supreme abode.248

“That abode of Lord Hari is not illkuminated by the sun or moon, nor by electicity. One who reaches it never returns to this material world.249

“Even in hundreds and millions of Brahma’s days one cannot completely describe this eternal and faultless abode of Lord Vishnu.”250

As before (Padma Purana, Uttara-khanda 256.9-21):

“Very fortunate great souls who serve the Lord’s feet, who are filled with the nectar of loving service to feet of Shri’s husband, attain Lord Vishnu’s supreme abode, which gives the bliss of spiritual love. That is Lord Hari’s abode of Vaikuntha, which is filled with many cities, airplanes and jewel palaces.” 251

“In its midst is a splendid city named Ayodhya surrounded by many walls colorful with gold and jewels, many jewel arches, and four great doors.252

“By gatekeepers headed by Canda, and by Kumuda and others, it is protected. Canda and Pracanda guard the eastern gate, Bhadra and Subhadra the southern gate, Jaya and Vijaya the western gate, and Dhata and Vidhata the northern gate.253

“Kumuda, Kumudaksha, Pundarika, Vamana, Shankukarna, Sarvanetra, Sumukha, and Supratishthita guard the directions in this city, O beautiful-faced Parvati. 254

“It is filled with palaces brilliant as milions of blazing fires. It is filled with splendid men and women eternally in the perfection of youth.255
“In the center is the Lord’s beautiful palace enclosed by jewel walls, beautiful with great gates, surrounded by many vimanas and palaces, and decorated with splendid apsara women everywhere.256
“In the center is the king’s splendid, beautiful, and very festive place, filled with jewels, containing thousands of ruby pillars, filled with eternally liberated souls, and beautiful with songs of the Sama Veda.257

“In the center of that place is a beautiful and auspicious throne made of all the Vedas and surrounded by the eternal personified Vedas and the deities of religion, knowledge, opulence, and renunciation.”258

There also (in another passage of Padma Purana, Uttara-khanda 256.23-54):
“In the center reside the deities of fire, sun and moon, Kurma-avatara, Ananta Shesha, and Garuda, the master of the three Vedas. The Vedic hymns and all sacred mantras also stay in that holy place, which is made of all the Vedas, and which is known in the Smriti-shastra as the yoga-pitha.259

“In the center is an eight-petalled lotus flower as brilliant as the rising sun, and in the center of that flower is the Gayatri mantra. O beautiful Parvati, in that place the Supreme Personality of Godhead sits with the goddess of fortune.260

“He is young, dark as a blue lotus petal, and splendid as millions of suns. His limbs are splendid and handsome, and His features graceful and delicate.261

“His delicate hands and feet are like blossoming red lotuses, His eyes are blossoming lotuses, and His graceful eyebrows are two vines.262
“His nose is handsome. His cheeks are handsome. His lotus mouth is handsome. He is glorious with teeth like a row of pearls. His gracefully smiling coral lips are handsome.263

“His smiling lotus face is splendid as a full moon. He shines with earings the color of rising suns.264

“He is glorious with glistening curly black hair decorated with mandara and parijata flowers.265
“He is decorated with a Kaustubha jewel splendid as the rising sun. He is splendid with gold and pearl necklaces around His conchshell neck.266

“He is glorious with four broad powerful arms, and four broad lionlike shoulders. He is glorious with many bracelets, armlets, and rings.267

“His splendid broad chest is decorated with forest garlands and with the Kaustubha jewel and other ornaments splendid as millions of rising suns.268

“He is glorious with a lotus navel that is Brahma’s birthplace. He wears fine yellow garments splendid as the rising sun. 269

“He is glorious with anklets wonderful with many jewels. His nails are splendid as glistening moons.270
“He is more handsome than millions of Kamadevas. He is an ocean of handsomeness. His limbs are anointed with glistening sandal paste. He is decorated with a forest garland. He is glorious with two raised hands holding a conch and cakra and His two other hands granting blessings and fearlessness. 271

“Decorated with golden and silver necklaces, beautiful golden Goddess Maha-Lakshmi sits at His left. 272

“She has all virtues. Her form is always at the beginning of youth. She wears jewel earrings. Her curly hair is black. 273
“Her limbs are anointed with glistening sandal paste. She is decorated with splendid flowers. Her curly hair is decorated with mandara, ketaki and jati flowers.274

“Her eyebrows are beautiful. Her nose is beautiful. Her hips are beautiful. She has large raised breasts. Her beautiful smiling lotus face is splendid as the full moon.275

“She is splendid with earrings the color of the rising sun. She is the color of molten gold. Her ornaments are made of gold.276

“She has four hands. She is decorated with a golden lotus. She is decorated with a necklace of golden lotuses wonderfully studded with many jewels. She is decorated with rings, bracelets, armlets, and neckaces.277

“Her two upraised hands hold two lotus flowers, and her two other hands hold golden matulunga fruits.278

“In this way the Supreme Personality of Godhead eternally enjoys transcendental bliss in the company of His eternal companion, Maha-Lakshmi, in the eternal spiritual sky.279

“O girl with the beautiful face, Bhu and Lila stay at His sides, and the potencies headed by Vimala stay on the petals in the eight directions. Vimala, Utkarshini, Jnana, Kriya, Yoga, Prahvi, Satya, and Ishana are the Lord’s queens. Holding camaras splendid as nectar moons, they please their husband, the infallible Lord. 280-281

“Decorated with all ornaments, splendid as millions of blazing fires, filled with all virtues, their hands lotus flowers and their faces like cooling moons, five hundred transcendental apsaras reside in the inner rooms of the palace. Surrounded by them, the king, the Personality of Godhead, shines with great splendor.282

“Surrounded by the devotees headed by Ananta Shesha, Garuda the king of birds, General Vishvaksena and other eternally liberated associates, and accompanied by Goddess Rama, the Supreme Person enjoys with great opulence.”283

Explanations Because these things are materially imposssible, what has been directly and indirectly and again and again said here should be accepted by philosophers on faith.284

There (in Vaikuntha) the Vedas, which are Lord Narayana’s breath, have form. The perspiration born from His limbs is supremely purifying.285

Because it consists of three fourths of the Lord’s energy, the spiritual world is called tripad-bhuta. Being a manifestation of one fourth of the Lord’s energy, the material world is called eka-pad.*286

In the verse quoted in Text 248, “amritam” means nectar”, “shashvatam” means “ever new and fresh”, “shuddha-sattvam” means “not material’, and the series of words beginning with “nitya” and akshara” mean (that the spiritual world) is free from the six material transformations.287

Note: The six material transformations are birth, growth, existence, change, decay, and death.

Accompanied by Goddess Lakshmi and other associates, the catur-vyuha expansions headed by Lord Vasudeva are manifest in the eight directions, beginning with the east.288

In the directions beginning with the southeast, the palaces of Lakshmi, Sarasvati, Rati, and Kanti respectively are situated.
Note: The directions are southeast, southwest, northwest, and northeast.289

In the second part of the spiritual sky, 24 Vishnu-expansions, beginning with Lord Keshava, are manifest in the eight directions and are counted in groups of three.

Note: These forms of the Lord are: Keshava, Narayana, Madhava, Govinda, Vishnu, Madhusudana, Trivikrama, Vamana, Shridhara, Hrishikesha, Padmanabha, Damodara, Vasudeva, Sankarshana, Pradyumna, Aniruddha, Purushottama, Adhokshaja, Nrisimha, Acyuta, Janardana, Upendra, Hari, and Krishna.290

In the third part of the spiritual sky, ten incarnations of the Lord, beginning with Matsya and Kurma, are manifest in the ten directions.291

In the fourth part of the spiritual sky, Satya, Acyuta, Ananta, Durga, Vishvaksena, Gajanana, Shankhanidhi, and Padmanidhi are manifest in the eight directions.292

In the fifth part of the spiritual sky, the four Vedas, beginning with the Rig Veda, Savitri, Garuda, piety, and sacrifice are manifest as before.293

In the sixth part of the spiritual sky the Lord’s conch, cakra, club, lotus, sword, Sharnga bow, and club are manifest. In the seventh part of the spiritual sky the devotees headed by Indra are manifest.294

(The Indra here is not the same as the Indra in the material world. The scriptures explain:)

“In the spiritual world the Sadhyas, Maruts, and Vishvadevas are all eternal. Other (Sadhyas, Maruts, and Vishvadevas), who are rulers of the three heavenly realms of the material world, are not eternal.”295

74 forms of the Lord, beginning with the form of Lord Vasudeva, are manifest on the same number (74) of planets in the spiritual sky.296

Bhrigu Muni and others have proved (Shrimad-Bhagavatam, Canto 10, Chapter 89) that Lord Vishnu is better than Shiva and Brahma. Then again, the purusha-avataara Lord Vasudeva is better than Lord Vishnu, and Lord Narayana, the master of Maha-Vaikunthaloka is better than Lord Vasudeva. 297

Lord Shiva, who is known as Sadashiva and Shambhu, is manifest in the northeast part of Vaikunthaloka.298

Therefore I say that They, the original Personality of Godhead (Lord Narayana) and the vilasa-avatara (Lord Krishna) are not different, because They are like one lamp that lights another lamp.

Note: Here the imaginary opponent concludes his attempt, begun in Text 226, to prove that Lord Narayana is the original Personality of Godhead and Lord Krishna is expanded from Him. In the next verse Shrila Rupa Gosvami begins his rebuttal.


Answer to part 2 Objection above :

Krishna is not a vilasa expansion of Vaikunthapati Narayana: part 2:


O eloquent one, don’t speak. You don’t understand Krishna’s great opulence and sweetness.300
Here Shrimad-Bhagavatam, which is the mature fruit of the Vedic tree of knowledge and the essence of all Vedanta philosophy, is the best of all evidence.301

In Shrimad-Bhagavatam (3.2.21):

The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krishna, is the master of the three worlds and the three principal demigods (Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva). No one is equal to or greater than Him. By His spiritual potency, known as svarajya-lakshmi, all His desires are fulfilled. While offering their dues and presents in worship, the predominating deities of the planets touch the lotus feet of the Lord with their helmets. Thus they offer prayers to the Lord.” 302

Explanation: This verse states that no one is equal to (asamya) or greater than (atishaya) Lord Krishna. Because Lord Krishna is described as better than all other forms of the Lord, it is shown that He is also better than Lord Narayana, the master of Vaikuntha.303

The use of the word “svayam” shows that Lord Krishna is not dependant on anyone else.304

(In Shrimad-Bhagavatam 9.11.20), Lord Ramacandra is described as “without equal or superior”. However, because He is not described as “svayam” (independent) He is not independent of Lord Krishna. Because He enjoys humanlike pastimes as Lord Krishna does, the form of Lord Ramacandra is most dear to Lord Krishna.305

The words of Lord Krishna in Brahmanda Purana:” Matsya, Kurma, and many others are My personal forms. Still, Ramacandra, the son of Dasharatha, is most dear to My heart.” 306

Svayam tv asamyatishayah” (Lord Krishna is the original Supreme Personality of Godhead, without equal or superior, Shrimad-Bhagavatam 3.2.21) and “krishnas tu bhagavan svayam” (Shri Krishna is the Original Supreme Personality of Godhead, Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.3.28) are two quotes that describe Lord Krishna’s supreme power and opulence. Because He is not dependent on any other form of the Lord, Krishna is the best.307

The word “tryadhisha” (the lord of all kinds of threes)” used in the verse quoted in Text 302 may be interpreted to mean “He who is the master of Dvaraka, Mathura, and Goloka“, or it may mean “He who is the master of the three purusha-avataras, Karanokadashayi Vishnu, the master of the material energy; Garbhodakashayi Vishnu, who appears as the Universal Form, and Kshirodakashayi Vishnu, the all-pervading Supersoul.“308

The word “svarajya-lakshmy-apta-samasta-kamah” means that all the Lord’s desires are fulfilled. “Sva” may mean “by Himself” or “by His own supreme potency“, “svarajya”, which comes from the verb “raj”, means “supreme independence“, “lakshmi” means “supreme opulence”, and “apta-samasta-kamah” means “He whose every desire is perfectly fulfilled”. 309

“Cira” means “They who live for a very long time”, “loka-palaih” means “by the demigods headed by Brahma”, “kirita-kotya” means “with millions of helmets”, “idita” means “honored by prayers”, and “pada-pithah” means “the feet on His transcendental form”.310

When the demigods’ helmets, studded with diamonds and other jewels, collided together at the Lord’s feet, they made a flood of sound considered here to be prayers. This is an utpreksha metaphor, where different things are assumed to be identical.311

The demigods headed by Brahma perform their prescribed duties, and thus follow the Lord’s orders. That is the offering described here.312

Now some passages from the Puranas will be quoted. 313

Unlimited variegated material universes are manifested by the potency of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.  314
Many universes, some as large as one billion yojanas in measurement, are manifested from the variegated potencies of Lord Hari. 315
Note: One yojana equal eight miles.

Some universes are one billion yojanas in diameter, others are 1,000 billion x 10,000 yojanas in diameter, and still others are 100 million billion x 100 yojanas in diameter.316

Some universes contain 20 planetary systems, others contain fifty planetary systems, and others contain 70 planetary systems. Other universes contain a hundred, a thousand, ten-thousand, or a hundred-thousand planetary systems. 317

In each niverse there is a great community of demigods, headed by Brahma. These demigods are the possessors of thousands and thousands of great powers and opulences. In some universes Indra and his associates live for 100 maha-kalpas, and Brahma and his associates have a life-span of 100 million billion maha-kalpas. 318

Note: One maha-kalpa equal 432 million earth-years.

The demigods beginning with Brahma and Indra are described in the verse quoted in Text 302, where it is said that the demigods, who live for a very long time, touch the lotus feet of te Lord with their millions of helmets and thus offer prayers to the Lord. 319

One day, when Lord Krishna was in the Sudharma assembly house in Dvaraka City, the palace doorman approached the Lord and said that the demigod Brahma was waiting at the door, eager to see the Lord’s lotus feet.320

The Lord asked: “Which Brahma has come to the door? Please ask him.” Hearing the Lord’s words, the doorman went again, asked him, returned, and said to Lord Krishna: “He is the four-headed Brahma, the father of the Four Kumaras.“321

When Lord Hari said, “Bring him”. Brahma was brought in. Brahma fell down like a stick to offer obeisances. Krishna asked him, “Why have you come here?” Brahma replied, Lord, later I will tell why I have come, but first I wish to know why You asked, `Which Brahma?’ Lord, there is no Brahma other than me.” 322

Lord Krishna smiled and meditated. The demigods from ten million universes then hurried to Dvaraka city. Among the many Brahmas some had eight heads, some sixty-four heads, some a hundred heads, some a thousand heads, some a hundred thousand heads, and some ten million heads. Among the many Shivas some had twenty heads, some fifty heads, some a hundred heads, some a thousand heads, and some a hundred thousand heads and arms. Among the many Indras some had a hundred thousand eyes, and some had a million eyes. Many other demigods, with many kinds of forms and ornaments, also came. Then they all approached Lord Krishna and bowed down before His lotus feet. When the four-headed Brahma saw all this he became mad with wonder.323 [Note: It is reference to Vasudeva Krishna of 1st catur vyuh.  ]

Brahmas

Additional reference where Golokapati Krishna bewildered Brahma :


back-to-godhead-lord-krishna

SB 10.13.19: “By His Vāsudeva feature, Kṛṣṇa simultaneously expanded Himself into the exact number of missing cowherd boys and calves, with their exact bodily features, their particular types of hands, legs and other limbs, their sticks, bugles and flutes, their lunch bags, their particular types of dress and ornaments placed in various ways, their names, ages and forms, and their special activities and characteristics. By expanding Himself in this way, beautiful Kṛṣṇa proved the statement samagra-jagad viṣṇumayam: “Lord Viṣṇu is all-pervading.

SB 10.13.46 — Then, while Lord Brahmā looked on, all the calves and the boys tending them immediately appeared to have complexions the color of bluish rainclouds and to be dressed in yellow silken garments.

SB 10.13.47-48 — All those personalities had four arms, holding conchshell, disc, mace and lotus flower in Their hands. They wore helmets on Their heads, earrings on Their ears and garlands of forest flowers around Their necks. On the upper portion of the right side of Their chests was the emblem of the goddess of fortune. Furthermore, They wore armlets on Their arms, the Kaustubha gem around Their necks, which were marked with three lines like a conchshell, and bracelets on Their wrists. With bangles on Their ankles, ornaments on Their feet, and sacred belts around Their waists, They all appeared very beautiful.

SB 10.13.49 — Every part of Their bodies, from Their feet to the top of Their heads, was fully decorated with fresh, tender garlands of tulasī leaves offered by devotees engaged in worshiping the Lord by the greatest pious activities, namely hearing and chanting.

SB 10.13.50 — Those Viṣṇu forms, by Their pure smiling, which resembled the increasing light of the moon, and by the sidelong glances of Their reddish eyes, created and protected the desires of Their own devotees, as if by the modes of passion and goodness.

SB 10.13.51 — All beings, both moving and nonmoving, from the four-headed Lord Brahmā down to the most insignificant living entity, had taken forms and were differently worshiping those viṣṇu-mūrtis, according to their respective capacities, with various means of worship, such as dancing and singing.
SB 10.13.54 — The viṣṇu-mūrtis all had eternal, unlimited forms, full of knowledge and bliss and existing beyond the influence of time. Their great glory was not even to be touched by the jñānīs engaged in studying the Upaniṣads.

SB 10.13.55 — Thus Lord Brahmā saw the Supreme Brahman, by whose energy this entire universe, with its moving and nonmoving living beings, is manifested. He also saw at the same time all the calves and boys as the Lord’s expansions.

SB 10.13.56 — Then, by the power of the effulgence of those viṣṇu-mūrtis, Lord Brahmā, his eleven senses jolted by astonishment and stunned by transcendental bliss, became silent, just like a child’s clay doll in the presence of the village deity.

SB 10.13.58 — Lord Brahmā’s external consciousness then revived, and he stood up, just like a dead man coming back to life. Opening his eyes with great difficulty, he saw the universe, along with himself.

SB 10.13.59 — Then, looking in all directions, Lord Brahmā immediately saw Vṛndāvana before him, filled with trees, which were the means of livelihood for the inhabitants and which were equally pleasing in all seasons.

SB 10.13.60 — Vṛndāvana is the transcendental abode of the Lord, where there is no hunger, anger or thirst. Though naturally inimical, both human beings and fierce animals live there together in transcendental friendship.

SB 10.13.61 — Then Lord Brahmā saw the Absolute Truth — who is one without a second, who possesses full knowledge and who is unlimited — assuming the role of a child in a family of cowherd men and standing all alone, just as before, with a morsel of food in His hand, searching everywhere for the calves and His cowherd friends.

Brahma’s prayer :

SB 10.14.1 — Lord Brahmā said: My dear Lord, You are the only worshipable Lord, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and therefore I offer my humble obeisances and prayers just to please You. O son of the king of the cowherds, Your transcendental body is dark blue like a new cloud, Your garment is brilliant like lightning, and the beauty of Your face is enhanced by Your guñjā earrings and the peacock feather on Your head. Wearing garlands of various forest flowers and leaves, and equipped with a herding stick, a buffalo horn and a flute, You stand beautifully with a morsel of food in Your hand.

SB 10.14.14 — Are You not the original Nārāyaṇa, O supreme controller, since You are the Soul of every embodied being and the eternal witness of all created realms? Indeed, Lord Nārāyaṇa is Your expansion, and He is called Nārāyaṇa because He is the generating source of the primeval water of the universe. He is real, not a product of Your illusory Māyā.

SB 10.14.18 — Have You not shown me today that both You Yourself and everything within this creation are manifestations of Your inconceivable potency? First You appeared alone, and then You manifested Yourself as all of Vṛndāvana’s calves and cowherd boys, Your friends. Next You appeared as an equal number of four-handed Viṣṇu forms, who were worshiped by all living beings, including me, and after that You appeared as an equal number of complete universes. Finally, You have now returned to Your unlimited form as the Supreme Absolute Truth, one without a second.

SB 10.14.38 — There are people who say, “I know everything about Kṛṣṇa.” Let them think that way. As far as I am concerned, I do not wish to speak very much about this matter. O my Lord, let me say this much: As far as Your opulences are concerned, they are all beyond the reach of my mind, body and words.

BrahmavaivartaPurana BrahmaKhanda: Chapter 13 Lord Vishnu in a form of Brahmana says to the Devatas:

You, Brahma,Mahadeva,Dharma and the lord of directions Dikpal are the resident of one loka . Brahma, Vishnu , Shiva , the other devatas and the living entities are many in many universes. Who is competent to count the numbers of universes and devatas ? The master of all of them is Sri Krishna who takes the form of a deity only to show mercy to the devotees. Everyone wants to attain  Satyaloka or the eternal Vaikuntha which is above all the universes. Even higher than Vaikuntha is Goloka . In Vaikuntha he resides as four armed Lakshmipati. There Sri Hari and is surrounded by his associates like sunanda, nanda, kumuda. In Goloka he is eternally residing as two handed Radhaballabha Sri Krishna.There are many Gopis, cows and two handed gopas always engaged  in his service. That Golokadhipati Sri Krishna is the complete(purnatam) Brahman.


Scriptural statements appearing Contradictory  and their resolution :

In Vishnu-dharma Purana, Uttara-khanda, it is said that all the material universes have the same structure and the same kind of residents:324
“O king, all material universes have the same form. They have the same regions and the same kinds of living entities.”325

A resolution of the apparent contradiction is given here.326

Note: The story of the many Brahmas shows tht the demigods have different forms from one universe to the next. The statement of Text 325 affirms that their forms are the same.

In Kurma Purana:

“When contradictions are found in the Vedic scripture, it is not that one statement is wrong. Rather, both statements should be seen in such a way that there is no contradiction.”327

At a certain time Lord Hari destroys all the material universes in a single moment.328

In Vishnu-dharma Purana, Uttara-khanda:
“As I have already explained to you, Lord Hari destroys all the numberless material universes at the same time, and then the universes remain in their unmanifest state within the material energy, prakriti. This is known as the Lord’s night.”329

After destroying them, the Lord creates the universes again. Somtimes He makes them all different, and sometimes He makes them all the same.330

Thus we have spoken the introduction to the topic we will address in writing.331


 

Pastimes of swayam Bhagavan Krishna is wonderful even to the master of Vaikuntha:

In Shrimad-Bhagavatam (3.2.12):

“The Lord appeared in the mortal world by His internal potency, yoga-maya. He came in His eternal form, which is just suitable for His pastimes. These pastimes were wonderful for everyone, even for those proud of their own opulence, including the Lord Himself in His form as the Lord of Vaikuntha. Thus His (Sri Krishna’s) transcendental body is the ornament of all ornaments.” 332

Explanation:In this verse “martya-lilaupayikam” (just suitable for His pastimes in the mortal world) modifies “bimbam” (form) in the previous verse(3.2.11). 333

Because of their wonderful and variegated sweetness, heroism, opulence, and other transcendental qualities, the human-like pastimes of the Supreme Lord charm the heart more than His pastimes as a demigod or other bring.334

The word “bimbam” (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 3.2.11) refers to He who is the origin of all the Lord’s forms full of six opulences.335

Because He is the abode of all virtue and handsomeness, it is said He is the right person to enjoy wonderful humanlike pastimes.336

In the verse quoted in Text 332, “sva-yoga-maya” means “the Lord’s spiritual potency”, “balam” means “power”, and “drshayata” means revealing”. It is as if the Lord said, “See the wonderful power of My spiritual potency, even the slightest fragrence of which is not manifest even in the highest planets of the material world!” By this potency the Lord reveals His form, which charms the entire world. That is the meaning of the word “sva-yoga-maya” here.337

This form fills even Lord Narayana and the other avataras with great and new wonder.338

“Saubhagarddheh” means “the highest, most wonderful handsomeness” and “param padam” means He who is the abode of the most exalted eternal opulence”.339

“Bhushana” refers to the Kaustubha gem, shark-shaped earrings and other ornaments decorating the Lord’s body. Here it is said that the Lord’s form has no equal or superior.340

Because He is eternal, and full of knowledge and bliss, there is no difference between the Lord and His form. The idea that they are different is only an imagination.341

In Kurma Purana:
“For the Supreme Lord there is no difference between His body and His self.” 342

In Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.44.14), in the words of the women of (Mathura) City:

“What austerities must the gopis have performed? With their eyes they always drink the nectar of the face of Lord Krishna, which is the essence of loveliness and is not to be equaled or surpassed. That loveliness is the only abode of beauty, fame and opulence. It is self-perfect, ever fresh and extremely rare.” 343


 

In the words of Lord Krishna to Lord Balarama (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.15.8):
“This land Vrindavana (Vrajabhumi) is glorified today. Your lotus feet have touched the earth and grass, Your fingers have touched the trees and creepers, and Your merciful eyes have glanced upon rivers, hills, birds, and beasts. The gopis have been embraced by Your arms, and even the goddess of fortune desires this. Now all of these are glorified.” 344

Explanation: His heart overcome with bliss by seeing the sweetness of Shri Vrindavana and its residents, Lord Hari praised them in the beginning of this prayer. Then, seeing that Lord Balarama was the origin of their excellences, Lord Hari praised Him.345

This verse should not be taken as a serious description of Lord Balarama’s superiority over Lord Krishna. Rather, Lord Krishna is speaking playful joking words out of friendship for Lord Balarama.346

In this verse Lord Krishna explains that the gopis are embraced by Lord Balarama to His chest. Even the goddess of fortune aspires to be embraced in this way by Lord Balarama.347

Although the goddess of fortune, Lakshmi-devi, aspired for the embrace of Lord Balarama, she never became worthy to attain it. 348


Srimati Lakshmi devi(The divine consort of Sriman Narayana ) aspires to attain Sri Krishna:

Although Shrimati Lakshmi-devi eternally remains on the chest of Lord Narayana, the master of the Vaikuntha planets, she aspires to rest on the chest of Lord Krishna. This means that she considers the form of Lord Krishna superior to the form of Lord Narayana.349[Very important point]

The story (of Shrimati Lakshmi-devi’s attempt to attain Lord Krishna) is described in the Puranas. A summary of that account is written here.350

Seeing Krishna’s handsomeness, and becoming very greedy to attain Him, Lakshmi-devi performed great austerities for that purpose. When Krishna noticed her austerities, He said to her, Why do you perform austerities?” She replied, “I wish to become a gopi and enjoy pastimes with You in Vraja.” He said, “That is very difficult to attain.” She said, {.sy 168}Lord, I then wish to become a golden line on Your chest.” He said, “So be it.” Then she assumed that form and stayed on His chest.351

The wives of the Kaliya serpent allude to this story in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.16.36):
“O Lord, we do not know how the serpent Kaliya attained such a opportunity to be touched by the dust of Your lotus feet. For this end, the goddess of fortune performed austerities for centuries, giving up all other desires, and taking austere vows.”*352


Glory of Krishna’s name is greater than any form of Lord including Lord Vishnu : It also  proves Krishna is the source of all

The glory of Krishna’s holy name is said to be greater than that of any other name of the Lord.353

In Brahmanda Purana:
“The pious results derived from chanting the thousand names of Lord Vishnu three times can be attained by only one repetition of the holy name of Krishna.”*354

In Skanda Purana:
“Lord Krishna’s holy name, which is the sweetest of sweet things, the most auspicious of auspicious things, and the transcendental fruit of the vine of all Vedic literature, delivers, O best of the Bhrigus, anyone who, either with faith or contempt, chants it even once.”355


The scriptures uses the word svayam again and again for Krishna:

Because the scriptures use the word “svayam” (personally) again and again to describe Him, Lord Krishna is the original Personality of Godhead. In Shrimad-Bhagavatam and other scriptures Lord Krishna is declared to be the original form (svayam-rupa) of the Personality of Godhead.356

In Brahma-samhita (5.1):

“Krishna, who is known as Govinda, is the supreme controller. He has an eternal, blissful, spiritual body. He is the origin of all. He has no other origin, for He is the prime cause of all causes.”*357

Again in Brahma-samhita (5.39):

“I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, who by His various plenary portions appeared in the world in different forms and incarnations such as Lord Rama, but who personally appears in His supreme original form as Lord Krishna.”*358

Therefore Lord Narayana, the master of Vaikuntha, is a vilasa-avatara of Lord Krishna. 359

The prayers of the Personified Vedas contain the essence of knowledge. Understanding that essence of knowledge, Narada Muni offered obeisances to Lord Krishna, and said (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.87.46):

“I offer my respectful obeisances to Lord Krishna, the Original Supreme Personality of Godhead.” 360-361


All the incarnations headed with Narayana comes with Golokapati Krishna when he manifests his earthly pastimes :

Objection:

Here someone may object: Lord Krishna was born in the Yadu dynasty at the end of the Dvapara-yuga. How can Lord Narayana, the master of Vaikunthaloka, who has no beginning, be a vilasa-avatara of Him ? 362

Answer:

I reply: Don’t speak in this way. Although He has no beginning, He plays the pastime of taking birth. Again and again Lord Krishna appears by His own wish.363

In Shrimad-Bhagavatam (3.2.15):
“The Personality of Godhead, the all-compassionate controller of both the spiritual and material creations, is unborn, but when there is friction between His peaceful devotees and persons who are in the material modes of nature, He takes birth just like fire, accompanied by the planary portions of mahat (Vaikunthapati Narayana).”*364

Explanation: Here “sva” means “the devotees” and sva-shanta-rupeshu” describes their nature. “Shanti” means “faith in the Lord”, and “shanta” means they who have faith in the Lord”.365

The devotees here are 1. those headed by Maharaja Vasudeva, 2. those headed by Maharaja Nanda, and 3. the sadhus. The “itaraih” (others) are they who oppose the devotees. They are 1. those headed by King Kamsa, and 2. those headed by other demons. “Svarupaih” means “very (su) ugly (arupa)”. That is the meaning here.366

“Abhyardyamaneshu” means “harrassed from all directions”, “anukampitatma” means “He whose heart is full of compassion”, “para” means “those places, headed by Goloka Vrindavana, that are free from the touch of the illusory energy”, “avara” means “the material universes, which are under the spell of the illusory energy,” and “isha” means “the controller of both the spiritual and material creations.” 367

“Mahat” means “They who are great”. Here it refers to Lord Narayana, the master of Vaikuntha, and to the catur-vyuha expansions beginning with Lord Vasudeva.368

Lord Krishna’s expansions (krishna-vyuha) are superior to Lord Narayana’s expansions, which are headed by Lord Vasudeva. Lord Krishna’s expansions join with Their vilasa-avataras, Lord Narayana’s expansions, and as one They appear in this world. 369

Note: Sri Rupa here brings the reference to two different catur vyuhs one expaned from Krishna and another expanded from Narayana. The catur vyuh expanded from Krishna is superior to Narayana and his catur vyuh expansions.

The “amshas” here are the famous purusha-avataras, as well as Ramacandra, Nrisimha, Varaha, Vamana, Nara’s friend (Narayana Rishi), Hayagriva, Ajita, and others.370

All these incarnation are eternally present in Lord Krishna.371

For this reason the pastimes of these avataras are seen in Vrindavana. 372

{Maha Vaikunthapati}Lord Narayana’s pastimes are seen in the wonderful display to Lord Brahma in Vrindavana of millions of universes and their demigods. This pastime is understood to be manifested by the Lord’s amsha-avatara. 373

The pastimes of Lord VASUDEVA and other avataras are seen in Mathura, Dvaraka, and other places as well as in the Lord’s childhood pastimes in Vraja. When Shridama assumed the form of Garuda, Krishna assumed a four-armed form, and when the Adityas approached Him, the Lord manifested twelve arms. 374

The pastimes of killing the demons are performed by Lord Sankarshana. Also, the forms of Lord Pradyumna and Lord Aniruddha are eternally present in the district of Mathura, as confirmed by the Gopala-tapani Upanishad, Varaha Purana, and other Vedic literatuures. 375

In this way the Deities headed by the Lord who rests on Ananta manifest the purusha-avataras’ pastimes in the district of Mathura.376

Whenever Lord Krishna displayed a pastime it was recorded in the narrations of the Puranas.377

Whatever forms, beginning with the form of Lord Ramacandra, Lord Krishna manifested in His pastimes are present even today in in Mathura district.378

Once a hundred million billion cows in Vrindavana produced a great ocean of milk. Krishna then assumed the form of the avatara Ajita and, with the gopas, who had become devas and asuras, churned it. 379

In Brahmanda Purana: “The Supreme Personality in Vaikuntha, who has four arms, is the master of Shvetadvipa and Nara-Narayana Rishis is Nanda’s son, who enjoys pastimes in the land of Vrindavana.  380

“Lord Krishna has limitless avataras that all enchant the heart. As hundreds and thousands of sparks (come from) a great fire and then enter it again, so (numberless avataras come from) Lord Hari, and then enter Him again.” 381

In this way the word “mahad-amsha-yuktah”, which refers to the amsa-avataras of the all-powerful Lord, is explained.382

According to the intimate relationships between Shri Krishna, the primeval Lord, and His devotees, the Puranas describe Him by various names. Sometimes He is called Narayana; sometimes Upendra (Vamana), the younger brother of Indra, king of heaven; and sometimes Kshirodakashayi Vishnu. Sometimes He is called the thousand-hooded Shesha Naga and sometimes the Lord of Vaikuntha. 383


Vasudeva Krishna and Golokapati Krishna :

Golokapati Krishna, the life of Srimati Radharani is the cause of all causes :

In Padma Purana (Patala-khanda 73.12-13), Shrila Vyasadeva’s words to Shri Krishna, revealed in a conversation with Maharaja Ambarisha:

“O Krishna, the Upanishads describe You as the Supreme Brahman, the Absolute Truth, and the creator and master of the universes. O Lord I desire to see You with my own eyes. O Lord, please let me see You.”398

Shri Krishna’s reply (Padma Purana, Patala-khanda 73.17-19):

Lord Krishna then said to me, `Look! I will show you My form, which is hidden from the Vedas.’ O king, then I saw the infallible Lord as a cowherd boy, splendid as a dark cloud, dressed in yellow garments, sitting at the base of a kadamba tree, laughing with cowherd boys, and surrounded by gopis. ” 399

There (Padma Purana, Patala-khanda 73.23-25):
“Smiling as He walked through Vrindavana, Lord Krishna said: `This form of Mine you have seen is eternal, transcendental, faultless, free from karma, peaceful, eternal, full of knowledge, blissful, perfect, complete, and handsome with lotus-petal eyes ” .400

“`The Vedas say this form is the original cause of all causes and is real, all-pervading, blissful, spiritual, eternal, and auspicious.'” 401

In ancient times some devotees have said that the Lord appeared in His Vasudeva feature in the home of Maharaja Vasudeva, and at the same time He appeared, along with Yogamaya, in His original form as Shri Krishna in the village of Vraja. 454

When Maharaja Vasudeva arrived in Vraja, he entered the maternity room, saw (Yashoda’s) daughter and, taking her with him, returned to Mathura. The Vasudeva expansion (Maharaja Vasudeva carried with him) then merged in the body of Shri Krishna.455

Because this pastime is very confidential, it was not related in the Shrimad-Bhagavatam. Nevertheless, Shukadeva Gosvami and other great devotees have indirectly described it in some of their writings.456

(Shukadeva Gosvami explains that Nanda Maharaja is the actual father of Shri Krishna) in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.5.1):

“Nanda Maharaja was naturally very magnanimous, and when Lord Shri Krishna appeared as his son, he was overwhlmed by jubilation.”457

(This is again mentioned) in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.6.43): “Nanda Maharaja was very liberal and simple. He immediately took his son Krishna on his lap as if Krishna had returned from death.”*458

Also in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.9.21):

The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krishna, the son of Mother Yashoda, is accessible to devotees engaged in spontaneous loving service, but He is not as easily accessible to mental speculators, to those striving for self-realization by severe austerities and penances, or to those who consider the body the same as the self.”* 459

In Brahma’s prayers (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.14.1):

Let me offer my respectful obeisances unto the son of Maharaja Nanda, who is standing before me with conchshell earrings and peacock feather on His head. His face is beautiful; He is wearing a helmet, garlanded with forest flowers, and He stands with a morsel of food in His hand. He is decorated with cane, flute, and a bugle made of buffalo horn. He stands before me with small lotus feet.”460

The difference between Krishna’s appearance in Vrindavana and His appearance in Mathura and Dvaraka is described in Yamala Tantra:

The Krishna known as Yadukumara is Vasudeva Krishna. He is different from the Krishna who is the son of Nanda Maharaja. Yadukumara Krishna manifests His pastimes in the cities of Mathura and Dvaraka, but Krishna the son of Nanda Maharaja never at any time leaves Vrindavana.” 461

Vrindavana-Krishna always has two arms. He never has four arms. He eternally enjoys pastimes a certain gopi.” 462[Yamala Tantra]

In His prakata form Lord Krishna goes to the Yadus’ capital, Mathura. Concealing His real identity as the son of Vraja’s king, He shows Himself as Lord Vasudeva. Vasudeva has sometimes with two arms and sometimes four arms. 463

Yadava-Krishna goes to Dvaraka and manifests the same pastimes He showed in Mathura.464

There (in Dvaraka) He manifests His third and fourth catur-vyuha expansions: Pradyumna and Aniruddha.465

Beginning with His marriages, many wonderful and extraordinary pastimes of His catur-vyuha expansions are described there[ Yamala Tantra ].466


 

Simultaneously appearing in his original form(Svayam rupa) in front of vrajvasis even when he was manifesting lila of Vasudeva Krishna :

“During the Lord’s prakata pastimes, the people of Vraja were separated from Him for three months. Then Lord Krishna again appeared. For three months He appeared among (or returned to) them. ” 467 [Yamala Tantra]

Here the word “sangati” may be interpreted in two ways, as “appearance” or “return”. 468

“Appearance” :

“Concerned for the welfare of His dear devotees, whose hearts were overcome with pain in His separation, He suddenly appeared among them. ” 469 [ Yamala Tantra ]

“When from Uddhava they heard Krishna’s message, Krishna, wearing a forest garland, suddenly appeared among them in Vraja.” 470[Yamala  Tantra ]

That Shri Krishna, although remaining in Dvaraka, appeared in Vraja is described again and again in many Vedic scriptures, beginning with Brihad Vishnu Purana. 471

” When Lord Krishna appeared in Vraja, which had been tormented with separation from Him, the people of Vraja thought His journey to Mathura had been only a bad dream. ”  472


 

Return to Vraja:

Showing love for His friends and the truthfulness of His word, (traveling) by chariot and other vehicles, Lord Krishna returned to His dear Vraja.473

“The truthfulness of His word” is described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.39.35): “Krishna was very much affected upon seeing the plight of the gopis, and He therefore consoled them. He told them they should not be aggrieved; He was coming back very soon after finishing His business.”* 474

In the same way (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.45.23, where Lord Krishna says to Maharaja Nanda and Yashoda-devi):

“My dear father and mother, I know you will be feeling separation by returning to Vrindavana and leaving Us here, but please rest assured that I shall be coming back to Vrindavana just after giving some satisfaction to my  father and mother, Vasudeva and Devaki, My grandfather, and other relatives and family members.”* 475

Shri Krishna’s promise was repeated by His dearest friend, the Yadava minister Uddhava.476

(Uddhava said to Nanda and Yashoda, in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.46.35 and 34): “I have brought a message from Krishna to the effect that He will soon come back to Vrindavana and satisfy you both by His personal presence. Now that Krishna has killed Kamsa, the Yadava’s enemy, in the wrestling arena, Krishna has promised that He will come back to Vrindavana after finishing His business in Mathura. This promise He will surely fulfill.”* 477

That Shri Krishna kept this promise (to return to Vraja) is confirmed by the words of Dvaraka’s residents (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.11.9):478

“O lotus-eyed Lord, whenever You go away to Mathura, Vrindavana or Hastinapura to meet Your friends and relatives, every moment of Your absence seems like a million years. O infallible one, at that time our eyes become useless, as if bereft of sun.”* 479

(This verse should be interpreted in the following way:) “O Lotus-eyed Lord (bho ambujaksha), You have gone (bhavan apsasara) to Mathura (madhun), eagerly desiring to see Nanda Maharaja and Your other friends and relatives there (suhrid-didrikshasaya).” The word “madhun” means “the village of Vraja in the district of Mathura”. Because the city of Mathura is not meant here the friends are the Lord’s friends in Vraja.480

Shri Krishna traveled by chariot to Mathura, killed the demon Dantavakra, and then returned to Vraja. This is clearly described in prose and verse in Padma Purana (Uttara-khanda 279.24-26):481

“After killing Dantavakra, Lord Krishna bathed in the Yamuna, entered Nanda’s Vraja, greeted and consoled His parents who yearned (to see Him), was embraced by them as tears (streamed down their) necks, bowed down before the gopas, consoled them, and offered them many garments, ornaments, and other gifts. 482

“Under a desire tree by the Yamuna’s charming shore Krishna enjoyed pastimes with the gopis day and night. Dressed as a gopa, he stayed there for two months, happily enjoying charming pastimes filled with the nectar of great love.” 483

Explanation: Here “uttirya” means “bathing”. The Lord killed the demon, bathed in the Yamuna, and went to Vraja.484

Although in His prakata pastimes the Lord is sometimes briefly absent, (in His aprakata pastimes) in His three abodes He enjoys pastimes eternally (and is never absent).485

In the Padma Purana’s description of Shri Krishna’s return to Vraja, another pastime is also related (Padma Purana, Uttara-khanda 279.27):486

Then, by Lord Krishna’s mercy, the gopas headed by Nanda, their wives and children, and the cows, birds, deer and other living entities there, all in glorious spiritual forms, entered spiritual airplanes and went to the highest Vaikuntha realm.” 487


No conflict in Bhagavatam regarding superiority of Krishna


 

Srimad Bhagavatam is the best of the vedic literatures and is the most recommended vedic scripture for the people of Kaliyuga. Srimad Bhagavatam conclusively proves Krishna is the cause of all causes .However many devotees of Lord Narayana tries to minimize the glory of Krishna by misinterprating various verses of Srimad Bhagavatam and thus try to conclude that the text is contradictory. But it is not contradictory as per the followers of Srimad Bhagavatam. Our acharya Sri Jiva Goswami has removed all the conflict related to Srimad Bhagavatam  in his sacred book Krishna Sandarbha : Anuccheda 29:

Objection 1 :

Someone may doubt: “You have presented a single quote to demonstrate that Krishna is the original source of all incarnations of Godhead. This single quote, however, contradicts many other quotes that describe Krishna as an expansion of the Personality of Godhead, and not the source of all incarnations.” text 2.

Answer:

To this doubt I reply: Let us consider which scriptural verses support the view that Shri Krishna is the original source of all incarnations, and which verses present a different opinion. Text 3

This (third) chapter in the First Canto of Shrimad-Bhagavatam tells the secret of the Lord’s birth and gives a summary of all the descriptions of the Lord’s incarnations. Because it comes at the beginning of the book, and because it describes what will follow later on, its “ete camsha-kalah pumsah” verse (1.3.28) is a is the paribhasha-sutra (definition of terms, or system of abbreviations, placed in the beginning of book, which must be understood in order to properly understand the remainder of the book), for the Shrimad-Bhagavatam. text 4-5

Because in the opening statement of a book the truth (pratijna) the book intends to establish is presented, in these descriptions of the incarnations, one should know that Krishna is the original Supreme Personality of Godhead, and the others are expansions of the purusha-incarnation. text 6

A paribhasha-sutra is defined in the following quote:

“A paribhasha-sutra explains the proper method for understanding a book. It gives the key by which one may understand the actual purport of a series of apparently unrelated facts and arguments.” text 7

The paribhasha-sutra is only stated once in a book, and it is not repeated. A single paribhasha-sutra may govern the contents even of a very large book with millions of statements or arguments. An example of this is the paribhasha-sutra “vipratishedhe param karyam,” which governs the entire text of Panini’s Ashöadhyayi. text 8

Objection 2 :

Someone may object: Many verses in the text of Shrimad-Bhagavatam contradict the statement of your so-called paribhasha-sutra. If this verse contradicts the text of the book it is supposed to explain, then the argument that it is the paribhasha-sutra for Shrimad-Bhagavatam is certainly a very weak and doubtful argument. text 9

Answer :

To this objection I reply: Shrimad-Bhagavatam describes the ultimate phase of the Absolute Truth and the supreme goal of life. It is not a loose collection of nice stories for casual reading. The weightiness of the subject matter of the Bhagavatam demands that it be prefaced by a paribhasha-sutra to explain the subject matter to follow. text 10

Now let us consider whether the verses of Shrimad-Bhagavatam contradict the statement of the paribhasha-sutra (“krishnas tu bhagavan svayam”).


Conflict on Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.1.2 :

O best of munis, you have also described the descendants of Yadu, who were very pious and strictly adherent to religious principles. Now, if you will, kindly describe the wonderful, glorious activities of Lord Viṣṇu  who appeared in that Yadu dynasty with Baladeva, His plenary expansion.

Resolution:

The statement “tatramshenavatirnasya” (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.1.2) may be presented as a statement contradicting the assertion of our paribhasha-sutra, and someone may claim that these words mean “The Supreme Godhead appeared in this material world by expanding Himself as Shri Krishna”.

Actually, however, this is not the proper interpretation of these words. The word “amshena” should be understood to mean “with His plenary portion, Lord Baladeva”, and the entire statement should be interpreted: “The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Krishna, appeared in this material world accompanied by His plenary portion, Lord Baladeva.”[Vishnu also refers to Krishna]


Conflict on Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.20.48:

In all the towns and villages people held great festivals, performing the Vedic fire sacrifice for honoring and tasting the first grains of the new harvest, along with similar celebrations that followed local custom and tradition. Thus the earth, rich with newly grown grain and especially beautified by the presence of Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma, shone beautifully as an expansion of the Supreme Lord.

Resolution:

The statement “kalabhyam nitaram hareh” (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.20.48) may also be presented as a statement contradicting our paribhasha-sutra, and someone may claim that these words mean “The Suprme Godhead appeared in the forms of His two expansions, Krishna and Balarama.” Actually, however, this is not the proper interpretation of these words. “Kalabhyam” (by the two plenary portions) is not actually one word, but the two words “kala” and “abhyam”, 
joined by sandhi. The phrase “hareh kala” means the earth planet, which is one of Lord Hari’s many potencies, and “abhyam” means “by Krishna and Balarama”. The actual meaning of this statement is: “The earth planet appeared very beautiful because of the presence of Krishna and Balarama.” text 15


Conflict on Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.2.41 :

“O mother Devakī, by your good fortune and ours, the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself, with all His plenary portions, such as Baladeva, is now within your womb. Therefore you need not fear Kaṁsa, who has decided to be killed by the Lord. Your eternal son, Kṛṣṇa, will be the protector of the entire Yadu dynasty.”

Resolution:

Someone may claim that the verse “dishöyamba te kukshi-gatah parah puman amshena sakshad bhagavan bhavaya nah” from Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.2.41) contradicts the view presented in our paribhasha-sutra (“krishnas tu bhagavan svayam”). Such a person may interpret this verse from Shrimad-Bhagavatam to mean “O mother Devaki, for your good fortune and ours, the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself has expanded into His plenary portion known as Krishna. In His Krishna-expansion, He is now within your womb.”

This is not the proper way to understand the meaning of this verse. The word “amshena” means “by His appearance as Lord Matsya and other incarnations”, and the second line of the verse should be understood in the past tense. In this way one will be able to perceive the actual meaning of the verse: “O mother Devaki, the Supreme Personality of Godhead formerly appeared as Lord Matsya and His many other incarnations just for our good-fortune. He has now appeared within your womb, in His original form of Lord Krishna.” text 16


Conflict on Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.2.18 :

“Thereafter, accompanied by plenary expansions, the fully opulent Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is all-auspicious for the entire universe, was transferred from the mind of Vasudeva to the mind of Devakī. Devakī, having thus been initiated by Vasudeva, became beautiful by carrying Lord Kṛṣṇa, the original consciousness for everyone, the cause of all causes, within the core of her heart, just as the east becomes beautiful by carrying the rising moon.”

Resolution:

Someone may claim that the statement of our paribhasha-sutra is contradicted by the following verse from Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.2.18): “tato jagan-mangalam acyutamsham”. Such a critic may interpret this statement: “Thereafter, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is auspicious for the entire universe, expanded Himself as His plenary portion Krishna, and appeared in this material world.”

The word “acyutamsham” in this verse is actually an anyapadartha-bahuvrihi-samasa, and it means “He in whom all the incarnations of Godhead are present.” The actual meaning of these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam is: “Thereafter, the Original Personality of Godhead, Lord Krishna, from whom the various forms of the Personality of Godhead have expanded, and who is auspicious for the entire universe, appeared in this material world, accompanied by all His plenary expansions.” text 17

That Lord Krishna is the Original Personality of Godhead is confirmed in the third line of this verse (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.2.18): “sarvatmakam atma-bhutam (Lord Krishna is the Original Personality of Godhead, the cause of all causes, and the origin of the all-pervading Supersoul).” text 18


Conflict on Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.43.23:

“[The people said:] These two boys are certainly expansions of the Supreme Lord Nārāyaṇa who have descended to this world in the home of Vasudeva.”

Resolution:

An unintelligent critic may try to refute the statement of our paribhasha-sutra by pushing forward this verse from Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.43.23) and he may interpret this verse to mean: “Krishna and Balarama, who are both plenary expansions of the Original Personality of Godhead, Lord Narayana, have descended to this material world, appearing in the home of King Vasudeva.”

In this verse the word “amshena” does not mean “as an expansion of Lord Narayana”, but rather it means “accompanied by all His plenary portions. In this way the actual meaning of the verse is established: “The Original Personality of Godhead, Krishna and Balarama, have descended to this material world accompanied by all Their plenary expansions. They have appeared in the home of King Vasudeva.” text 19


Conflict on Srimad Bhagavatam  4.1.59

“That Nara-Nārāyaṇa Ṛṣi, who is a partial expansion of Kṛṣṇa, has now appeared in the dynasties of Yadu and Kuru, in the forms of Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna respectively, to mitigate the burden of the world. ”

Resolution:

Our critic may try to interpret this verse to mean: “Krishna and Arjuna are plenary expansions of Nara and Narayana Rishis, and they have appeared in the Yadu and Kuru dynasties just to remove the burden of the world.”

That is not the proper way to interpret this verse. In this sentence, we may note that the past-participle “agatau” is the subject of the sentence, in the nominative case. The word “krishnau” is in the accusative case. The word “bhagavatah” means “The Supreme Personality of Godhead, the origin of all incarnations of Godhead”, and “hareh” means “of the purusha-incarnation”. The words “tau imau amshau” refer to Nara-Narayana Rishis, and these words are in the nominative case. The word “krishnau”, in the accusative case refers to Krishna and Arjuna. The meaning of the sentence is “Nara and Narayana Rishis were present within Krishna and Arjuna.” In other words, Nara and Narayana Rishis accompanied Krishna and Arjuna. This verse does not mean that Krishna and Arjuna are expansions of Nara and Narayana Rishis. The remainder of the sentence describes Krishna and Arjuna. Firstly, the verse says that Krishna and Arjuna descended to this world to relieve the burden of the earth. The use of the word “ca” (also) suggests that They also appeared to grant transcendental happiness to the devotees by performing various pastimes. We may also note that the word “yadu-kurudvahau” means “who appeared in the Yadu and Kuru dynasties”.

Our interpretation of this verse from Shrimad-Bhagavatam therefore is: “Nara and Narayana Rishis appeared within the bodies of Krishna and Arjuna, who took birth in the Yadu and Kuru dynasties just to relieve the burden of the earth.”

The following quote from the Agama-shastra explains that Krishna and Arjuna are not expansions of Nara and Narayana Rishis:

arjune tu naraveshah
krishno narayanah svayam

“Arjuna is an empowered (shakty-avesha) incarnation of Nara Rishi and Lord Krishna is directly the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Narayana.”

That Lord Krishna is the original Lord Narayana is confirmed in the prayers of Lord Brahma (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.14.14):

narayanas tvam na hi sarva-dehinam

“O Krishna, are You not the original form of Lord Narayana, who resides in the hearts of all living entities?” text 20


Conflict on Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.60.15:

“Marriage and friendship are proper between two people who are equal in terms of their wealth, birth, influence, physical appearance and capacity for good progeny, but never between a superior and an inferior.”

Resolution:

Our critic may then dispute our paribhasha-sutra by saying that because Krishna and Arjuna are equals, Krishna cannot be the source of all incarnations. They say that friendship is a relationship of equals and they quote these words spoken by Shri Krishna to Rukmini-devi (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.60.15):

“Generally friendship or marriage is contracted between partners who are equal in stength, birth, wealth, and activities, and not between those who are not equally possessing these assets.”*

Had Krishna not considered Arjuna His equal, they say, He would not have made friendship with him.
This is confirmed in the following words spoken by Lord Krishna to Arjuna in the Vishnu-dharma Purana:

“O Arjuna, O son of Pandu, someone who is able to understand you, is automatically able to understand Me also, and someone who becomes your follower, I consider to be My follower also. O Arjuna, I do not consider that there is any difference between you and Me, for we are equal in all respects.” text 21

From these statements we may understand the deep friendship between Lord Krishna and Arjuna. By this friendship we may understand that Arjuna is an empowered incarnation of Nara Rishi, the great friend of Narayana Rishi. That is the real menaing of these words. text 22

The reason some people maintain that Krishna is a partial expansion of the Original Personality of Godhead, and not the Original Personality of Godhead Himself, is described by the Lord in Bhagavad-gita (7.25):

“I am never manifest to the foolish and unintelligent. For them I am covered by My eternal creative potency (yogamaya), and so the deluded world knows Me not, who am unborn and infallible.”*

Shri Krishna only partially reveals Himself to the ordinary living entities. Because of this partial revelation, ordinary people believe that Krishna is merely an expansion of the Original Godhead.text 23


Conflict on Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.8.19:

“In conclusion, therefore, O Nanda Mahārāja, this child of yours is as good as Nārāyaṇa. In His transcendental qualities, opulence, name, fame and influence, He is exactly like Nārāyaṇa. You should all raise this child very carefully and cautiously.”

Resolution:

The critic of our paribhasha-sutra may push forward the following statement of Gargacarya (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.8.19):

narayana-samo gunaih

Our critic will interpret these words to mean: “Krishna possesses wonderful exalted qualities, just as Lord Narayana does.” Because Gargacarya compared Krishna to Narayana, our critic will have it that Krishna must be an expansion of Narayana.

Actually, however, these words mean: “Narayana, the ruler of Vaikunöhaloka, possesses transcendental qualities almost equal to the most exalted qualities present in Lord Krishna.” Gargacarya’s intention in speaking these words was to compare Narayana to Krishna, not to say that Krishna is so wonderful that He possesses great qualities, just as Lord Narayana does.text 24

Now we move on to the biggest section which appears conflicting.


Conflict on Srimad Bhagavatam  10.89.58 and SB 10.89.59:

“[Lord Mahā-Viṣṇu said:] I brought the brāhmaṇa’s sons here because I wanted to see the two of you, My expansions, who have descended to the earth to save the principles of religion. As soon as you finish killing the demons who burden the earth, quickly come back here to Me.”

“Although all your desires are completely fulfilled, O best of exalted personalities, for the benefit of the people in general you should continue to exemplify religious behavior as the sages Nara and Nārāyaṇa.”

Objection of followers of Sri Ramanuja:

Even though Shri Krishna is the Original Personality of Godhead, He indulgently accepts the Bhuma-purusha’s indentification of Him as an incarnation of Narayana Rishi, Shri Krishna will soon reveal that He is actually the Original Godhead, the origin and resting place of the innumerable incarnations of Godhead. The followers of Shripada Ramanujacarya accept that the Original Personality of Godhead is Narayana, and Shri Krishna is an incarnation of the purusha-avatara Karanarnavashayi Vishnu. They quote the verse “yuvam nara-narayanav rishi dharmam acaratam” (My dear Krishna and Arjuna, You are both incarnations of Nara-Narayana Rishis, who formerly performed exemplary activities for spiritual progress) and the verse “tvarayetam anti me” (O Krishna and Arjuna, please quickly come to Me) to support their views, although the actual meaning of the Vedic literatures refutes their conclusion. text 31

The followers of Ramanaujacarya cling to their imperfect conclusion that Krishna and Arjuna are incarnations of Nara-Narayana Rishi and the Bhuma-purusha, even though this view is not supported in any other Vedic literature. Our conclusion is different from theirs. text 32

The critic of our paribhasha-sutra may protest: Krishna approached the Bhuma-purusha with great reverence and devotion. Certainly this shows that Krishna is a subordinate expansion of the Bhuma-purusha, and not the Original Form of the Personality of Godhead. text 37

Someone may protest: Krishna Himself addresses the Bhuma-purushas (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.89.54) as “purushottamottamam” (superior to the best of persons). This clearly indicates that the Bhuma-purusha, and not Krishna, is the Original Form of the Personality of Godhead.42


Refutation:

Rules for interpreting the scriptures:

Our beginning statement (that Shri Krishna is the Original Personality of Godhead) is also confirmed in the account of Krishna in the Eighty-ninth Chapter of the Tenth Canto of Shrimad-Bhagavatam. text 25

The statements of scripture may be accepted in two ways: 1. by accepting the direct or literal meaning, and 2. by accepting an indirect, obscure or allegorical meaning. text 26

Among the rules for interpreting the scriptures we find the statement:

sakshad upadeshas tu shrutih

“The instructions of the Shruti-shastra should be accepted literally, without fanciful or allegorical interpretations.’” text 27

The statements of the Shruti-shastra are always correct and do not need to be substantiated by any external authority. Because the scriptures are thus the supreme authority, they should be taken literally, without imaginative interpretation. Therefore it is said: text 28

The Mimamsa-darshanam (3.3.14) explains: “Scriptural instructions are more authoritative than the logical arguments known as linga, vakya, prakarana, and sthana, and these logical arguments are more authoritative than conclusions drawn from historical accounts.” The statement of our paribhasha-sutra (krishnas tu bhagavan svayam) that Krishna is the original form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead appears to contradict the Bhuma-purusha’s assertion (in the Bhagavatam, Tenth Canto, Chapter Eighty-nine): “O Krishna and Arjuna, you are both My plenary expansions”. The first statement is in the context of a philosophical discussion, and the second in the context of an historical narration. For this reason, according to the description given in the Mimamsa-darshanam, the former statement is more authoritative than the second.text 29


These words of the Bhuma-purusha are not to be taken very seriously for the following reasons:

1. Shri Krishna, who is omniscient, did not begin His conversation with the Bhuma-purusha by offering respectful prayers, as is customary when one approaches a spiritual superior to receive instruction from him.

2. The Bhuma-purusha’s statement is contradicted by His activity of stealing the brahmana’s sons just to get the audience of Shri Krishna (The Bhuma-purusha said: “I have taken away the brahmana’s sons because I am so eager to see You.”)

3. The statement of Suta Gosvami in the beginning of Shrimad-Bhagavatam and the instructions of many other exalted speakers in the Bhagavatam clearly contradict the statement of the Bhuma-purusha.

4. In this chapter of Bhagavatam, the Bhuma-purusha’s assertion is followed by other statements that contradict it.Text 30

5. These two statements of the Bhuma-purusha (“My dear Krishna and Arjuna, You are both incarnations of Nara-Narayana Rishis, who formerly performed exemplary activities for spiritual progress,” and “O Krishna and Arjuna, You must quickly come to Me”) clearly contradict the description of Krishna found in the Vedic literatures and the writings of the great spiritual masters. text 33


Bhuma-purusha was completely unable to see Krishna and Arjuna : It should not be difficult for an avatari to see avatara:

If Krishna and Arjuna had been plenary expansions of Nara Narayana Rishis, who were expanded from the Bhuma-purusha, then Krishna and Arjuna would not have been so difficult for the Bhuma-purusha to see. Krishna and Arjuna would have been then very easy for the Bhuma-purusha to see, just as one may very easily see a jewel held in one’s own hand. If Krishna and Arjuna had been expansions of the Nara-Narayana Rishis and ultimately the Bhuma-purusha Himself, the Bhuma-purusha would have easily been able to see His own expansions, even if They were performing pastimes far away on the earth planet.

Actually, however, the Bhuma-purusha was completely unable to see Krishna and Arjuna, and had to devise an elaborate stratagem to see them. This is confirmed in the Bhuma-purusha’s own words “yuvayor didrikshuna” (I have done all this, simply because I desired to see You). Only if Krishna revealed Himself would the Bhuma-purusha have been able to see Krishna and Arjuna. Because it was so difficult for the Bhuma-purusha to see Krishna, it must be concluded that Krishna is clearly not an expansion of Narayana Rishi, and ultimately the Bhuma-purusha. Actually Krishna is the Original Personality of Godhead, full of all transcendental potencies. This fact is confirmed in the narration of this pastime found in the verses of Shrimad-Bhagavatam. text 34


Krishna’s pastime-potency is here shown to be more powerful than the personal effulgence of the Bhuma-purusha:

When Krishna and Arjuna had pierced the coverings of the material universe, Arjuna became greatly afraid, and his eyes became full of pain when he saw the glaring spiritual effulgence emanating from the body of the Bhuma-purusha. At this time Arjuna’s distress became immediately relieved by the pastime-potency of Shri Krishna, the Original Personality of Godhead. Krishna’s pastime-potency is here shown to be more powerful than the personal effulgence of the Bhuma-purusha. Because Krishna’s potency is thus greater than that of the Bhuma-purusha, it must be concluded that Krishna is not an expansion of Narayana Rishi, who is Himself an expansion of the Bhuma-purusha. If Krishna were expanded from the Bhuma-purusha, Krishna’s potency would be less powerful than His. text 35

Shri Krishna’s supreme prowess may also be seen in His ability to repeatedly overpower innumerable demons. He is always undefeated in fighting with them. text 36

Another example of Shri Krishna’s supreme prowess may be seen in this account of His visit to the Bhuma-purusha. When Krishna and Arjuna approached the many-layered covering of the material universe, the transcendental horses (who had originally descended into the material world from Vaikunthaloka) stopped drawing Their chariot, unable to proceed because of the great darkness of the coverings of material universe. Krishna enabled the horses to proceed, and revealed His great power by illuminating the path with His sudarshana-cakra. text 37


Shri Krishna played the role of a human being and offered respects to Shiva, Narada and others:

To this objection I reply: In His earthly pastimes Shri Krishna played the role of a human being and offered respects to Shiva, Narada and others. This polite decorum on Shri Krishna’s part does not disprove His actual status as the Original Personality of Godhead. In this pastime, and other pastimes also, we may clearly observe that Shri Krishna is supremely independent, and may do whatever He likes. Krishna’s supreme independence in these circumstances sufficiently refutes this objection offered by our critics.


In Vrindavan Krishna paid obeisances to his own expansion  during Govardhan lila : Same in this case:

It may appear that the statement of our paribhasha-sutra, and the statement of the Bhuma-purusha contradict each other, but actually they do not. This may be seen from the following explanation:

Even though Shri Krishna is the Original Personality of Godhead, in order to bewilder the residents of Vrajabhumi during the worship of Govardhana Hill, He manifested an expansion of His own transcendental form, and then, along with the residents of Vraja, offered respectful obeisances to this expanded form of Himself. In this way, even though Krishna is the Original Personality of Godhead, He offered respectful obeisances to His own expansion, as a part of His transcendental pastimes.

In the same way, Lord Krishna desired to amaze and bewilder His friend Arjuna, and to do this, in His expansion as the Bhuma-purusha, the Lord removed the brahmana’s sons, took Arjuna to the Bhuma-purusha’s palace and, appearing full of awe and wonder, offered respectful obeisances to His own expanded form of the Bhuma-purusha in the company of Arjuna. Offering obeisances to His expansion, Lord Krishna addressed Him with great respect.text 39

Offering obeisances to His expansion during the worship of Govardhana Hill, Shri Krishna said (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.24.36):

“Accompanied by the residents of Vrajabhumi, I offer my respectful obeisances to Myself, the Supreme Person.”

In the same way the Lord offered His respects to His Bhuma-purusha expansion. This is recorded in the following words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.89.57):

“The infallible Personality of Godhead then offered His respectful obeisances to His own self in the form of the unlimited Bhuma-purusha.” text 40

vavanda — paid homage ātmānam — to Himself .


The same event is recorded in Hari Vamsa where Krishna identifies Bhuma-purusha’s effulgence as His own:

We may also note the following words spoken by Shri Krishna and recorded in the scripture Hari-vamsha. When Krishna and Arjuna had penetrated the coverings of the material universe, they saw the dazzling Brahman effulgence emanating from the spiritual body of the Bhuma-purusha. At that time Krishna informed Arjuna (Vishnu-parva 114.9):

“That glaring effulgence is the eternal splendor of My own transcendental body.”*

By identifying the Bhuma-purusha’s effulgence as His own, Lord Krishna affirms that the Bhuma-purusha is an expansion of Lord Krishna.


Purushottamottama does not mean original personality of Godhead:

In the word “purushottamottama” the word “purusha” refers to the individual living entities. The word “uttama” means “superior”. Therefore “purusha-uttama” refers to the all-pervading Supersoul expansion of the Personality of Godhead. Superior (“uttama”) to the Supersoul expansion is the Bhuma-purusha, who is the prabhava expansion of the Original Personalty of Godhead. From this Bhuma-purusha the Supersoul is manifest. For this reason the Bhuma-purusha is addressed as “purushottamottama”. By itself this word does not at all establish that the Bhuma-purusha is the Original Personality of Godhead. text 42


Proper interpretation of Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.89.58: The later statements of Bhuma-purusha:

Now let us consider the statement of the Bhuma-purusha (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.89.58) that some critics think opposes the premise of our paribhasha-sutra (krishnas tu bhagavan svayam). The verse is:

dvijatmaja me yuvayor didrikshuna
mayopanita bhuvi dharma-guptaye
kalavatirnav avaner bharasurann
hatveha bhuyas tvarayetam anti me

The proper interpretation of this verse is:

“I wanted to see both of You, and therefore I have brought the sons of the brahmana here. Both of You have appeared in the material world to re-establish religious principles, and you have appeared here with all your potencies and the incarnations who have expanded from You. Please kill all the demons, and cause them to quickly return to the spiritual world.” text 43

An explanation of these words follows: In the Bhuma-purusha’s first statement we may note the following definitions of words: “yuvayoh” means “of You two”, “didrikshuna maya” means “by Me, who was desiring to see”, “me” means “My”, “bhuvi” means “abode”, and “upanitah” means “taken away”. text 44

In the Bhuma-purusha’s second statement, He addresses Krishna and Arjuna as “kalavatirnau”. In this compound word, the word “kala” means “expansions”, and the phrase “along with” is understood. In this way the word is a “madhya-pada-lopi-samasa”, and it means “O Supreme Lord, who has descended along with all Your vishnu-tattva expansions”. Because the material world is an expansion of the Supreme Lord’s energy, the word “kala” may also be interpreted to mean “in the material world”. In this interpretation the word “kalavatirnau” means “O Lord who has descended to this material world”. That the material world is as expansion of Lord Krishna’s energy is confirmed in the Purusha-sukta prayers: “pado ‘sya vishva-bhutani” (The material world is one quarter part of the energy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead). The word “bhuyah” means “again”.
The last part of the Bhuma-purusha’s statement is: “Please kill the demons who still remain on the earth, and liberate them, bringing them quickly back to Me”. This means that the demons who are personally killed by the Personality of Godhead become liberated and enter the Brahman effulgence emanating from the transcendental body of the Lord’s Bhuma-purusha expansion. text 45

[It is to be noted that only the demons killed by Krishna attain mukti not any other incarnation. It is clearly explained in another article. So it is the proper interpretation.]

This effulgence emanating from the transcendental body of the Personality of Godhead is described to Arjuna by Lord Krishna in the Hari-vamsha (Vishnu-parva 114.9-10) in the followingn words:

“My dear Arjuna, O best of the descendants of Maharaja Bharata, this splendid Brahman effulgence that you have seen is the glowing light emanating from My transcendental form. I am not different from that splendid effulgence, which is My eternal spiritual potency. This potency of Mine is sometimes manifest and sometimes unmanifest. They who have perfected the practice of ashtanga-yoga may enter this divine effulgence and attain one of the five kinds of liberation.” text 46


tvarayetam:please cause to quickly arrive is a prayer by MahaVishnu to Krishna :

In this verse the word “tvarayetam (please cause to quickly arrive)” is in the causative and the potential mood. The potential is used here to indicate a prayer or appeal. The word “anti” is an indeclineable prefix with a dative sense, and it is used here to mean “for the purpose of” in much the same way as the infinitive is used. It means here “for the purpose of killing the demons, and granting liberation to them (tvarayetam).” text 47


kalavatirnau is understood as a tritiya-tatpurusha-samasa :

The Bhuma-purusha glorified Krishna and Arjuna, saying “You appear with Your transcendental potencies and various incarnations and expansions (kalavatirnau). This interpretation of the word “kalavatirnau” may be accepted if the word is understood as a tritiya-tatpurusha-samasa. This interpretation is very logical and easy to accept. If one wants to interpret “kalavatirnau” as two words in the nominative case, and interpret the two words to mean “Krishna and Arjuna are My expansions”, this interpretation will be difficult for the learned reader to accept. text 47


Proper interpretation of Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.89.59:Narayana Rishi is an expansion of Krishna:

Someone may quote the following verse (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.89.59):

purna-kamav api yuvam
nara-narayanav rishi
dharmam acaratam sthityai
rishabhau loka-sangraham

in an attempt to show that Krishna and Arjuna are actually expansions of Nara and Narayana Rishis. There is, however, no need to interpret in that way. The actual interpretation of this verse follows:

“My dear Krishna and Arjuna, You are both great transcendental personalities, and all Your wishes are always automatically fulfilled. You have both formerly appeared as Nara-and Narayana Rishis, the best of persons. Appearing as these two sages, you performed exemplary pious activities for the benefit of all living entities.” text 48

In this verse the Bhuma-purusha glorifies Krishna and Arjuna, who are always engaged in furthering the well-being of all living entities. Using the word “rishabhau”, the Bhuma-purusha addresses the Original Personality of Godhead (Krishna), the origin of all the incarnations of Godhead. With this word the Bhuma-purusha also addresses Shri Krishna’s intimate friend Arjuna. The Bhuma-purusha explains that Shri Krishna and Arjuna formerly appeared among those engaged in spiritual activities as Their partial incarnations Nara and Narayana Rishi to benefit the entire world by preaching the principles of actual religious life.

That Narayana Rishi is an expansion of the Original Godhead, Lord Krishna, is confirmed by Lord Krishna Himself in the Eleventh Canto of Shrimad-Bhagavatam, where Lord Krishna says:

“narayano muninam ca (Among the sages I incarnate as Narayana Rishi)”. Because Krishna and Arjuna had formerly appeared as Nara and Narayana Rishis for the benefit of all living entities, the Bhuma-purusha was convinced that They were the best of all saintly persons. For this reason the Bhuma-purusha stole the brahmana’s sons, confident that Krishna and Arjuna would come to rescue them.text 49

This is also described in the Hari-vamsha (Vishnu-parva 114.8), where Lord Krishna says:

“In order to get the opportunity to see Me, the Bhuma-purusha has stolen these sons of the brahmana. Although ordinarily I would not agree to come here, I have come for the sake of a brahmana.” Text 50


Concluding statements in chapter 89 proves Krishna is superior to everyone:

In this context we may note that the word “acaratam” in the previously quoted statement of the Bhuma-purusha is a present active participate in the genetive plural (“of those who are engaged in activities”). By identifying Shri Krishna as the best of those engaged in spiritual activities, the Bhuma-purusha has declared that Krishna is superior to everyone, including the Bhuma-purusha Himself. This fact will be confirmed in a quote from the Mritunjaya Tantra to appear later in this book, and it is also confirmed in the following quote from Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.89.62):

“When Arjuna saw the opulent abode of Lord Vishnu, he became struck with wonder. Arjuna was able to understand that all the opulences of the various incarnations of Godhead are manifest by the mercy of his own friend, Shri Krishna.” text 51-52

We may note in this connection that this verse does not say “The opulences of the various incarnations of Godhead are manifest by the mercy of the Bhuma-purusha”. In his commentary, Shridhara Svami nicely explains the purport of this chapter of Shrimad-Bhagavatam by saying:

“In order to establish that Shri Krishna is the Original Personality of Godhead (bhagavan), Shukadeva Gosvami has spoken this account of the visit to the Bhuma-purusha.” text 53

 


Some additional references from other sources to prove Krishna is the source of all :

BrahmavaivartaPurana BrahmaKhanda Chapter 4:

Vedamata savitri Prays to Sri Krishna: Hey Bhagavan, You are the cause of all causes and the seed of everything. You are the eternal Brahma Jyoti. You are the greatest of all and you are the impersonal and pure Brahman.

BrahmavaivartaPurana BrahmaKhanda:chapter 13:

Lord Shiva says to a brahmana : The krishna who is eternally residing in Goloka dham is also residing in vaikuntha and Swetadwip. Just as there is no  difference between fire and its spark similarly there is no difference between Anshi and Ansh.

BrahmavaivartaPurana BrahmaKhanda: Chapter 13 Lord Vishnu in a form of Brahmana says to the Devatas:

You, Brahma,Mahadeva,Dharma and the lord of directions Dikpal are the resident of one loka . Brahma, Vishnu , Shiva , the other devatas and the living entities are many in many universes. Who is competent to count the numbers of universes and devatas ? The master of all of them is Sri Krishna who takes the form of a deity only to show mercy to the devotees. Everyone wants to attain  Satyaloka or the eternal Vaikuntha which is above all the universes. Even higher than Vaikuntha is Goloka . In Vaikuntha he resides as four armed Lakshmipati. There Sri Hari and is surrounded by his associates like sunanda, nanda, kumuda. In Goloka he is eternally residing as two handed Radhaballabha Sri Krishna.There are many Gopis, cows and two handed gopas always engaged  in his service. That Golokadhipati Sri Krishna is the complete(purnatam) Brahman.

BrahmavaivartaPurana BrahmaKhanda : Chapter 28:

It is Lord Krishna who is the independent of others and known as eternal Bhagavan. He is devoid of material qualities , is meek and above the modes of material nature. He is the foundation of everything , seed of everything, knower of everything. He can take any form , is the Lord of all Lords, worshipped by all and He is the one who grants siddhi to others. That adipurush Bhagavan Himself resides in Goloka in his two handed form. His dress is also similar to the cowherd boys and is surrounded by his  associates. That most complete(paripurnatam) Bhagavan is known as Sri Krishna. He is always with Sri ji and is  the praneshwar of Srimati Radharani . He is omnipotent omniscient ,omnipresent and can give His darshan. The meaning of “Krs” is All and the meaning of “na” is Atma . That Parabrahman Parmatma is the atma of everyone. That omnipresent  super soul is the Adi Purusha .  That is why his name is Krishna .That same lord in one of his expansion in four handed form is residing in vaikuntha as Lakshmipati surrounded by four handed associates. He also expands and  resides in swetadwip as four handed Lord of the universe Vishnu as Ramapati. The daughter of ocean Rama is his consort. Thus I have explained you everything related to  the subject matter of Parabrahman.

From Gopal Tapani Upanishad:

Chapter 1 Text 2:

Om. Some sages[Four kumaras] said to the demigod Brahma: “Who is the Supreme Personality of Godhead? Whom does death fear? By knowing whom does everything else become known? Who created this world.

Text 3
Brahma replied to them: “Krishna is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Death fears Govinda. By understanding Gopijanavallabha everything becomes known. By pronouncing the word “svaha” the Personality of Godhead created the world. [Note: Gopijanavallabha-” Krishna, who is very dear to the gopis.” denotes Golokapati Krishna]

Text 5
To them Brahma said: “Krishna means He who delivers from sin, Govinda means He who is famous on the earth, in the Vedas, and among the surabhi cows, Gopijanavallabha means He who enchants the gopis, and Svaha means the potency of the Supreme. All these names refer to the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Text 22
“To they who always diligently worship Lord Visnu’s transcendental form, the Lord, in His original form as a cowherd boy, shows His lotus feet.”

Chapter 2: Text 107:
“Om. Obeisances to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, whose original form is that of a cowherd boy. Om tat sat. Bhur Bhuvah and Svah. Obeisances, obeisances to Him.”


Some additional references by Sri Jiva Goswami based on Srimad Bhagavatam:


Krishna Sandarbha : Anuccheda 38
Shukadeva Gosvami clearly explains that Lord Krishna is the Supreme Original Personality of Godhead in the Shrimad-Bhagavatam (11.29.49), where he says:

I offer my respectful obeisances to Lord Krishna, the Original form of the Personality of Godhead.

From this it may be observed that Krishna is the most important name of the Lord, and His two armed form as Krishna is His most important form. This eternal supreme status of Lord Krishna is revealed in this verse where Shukadeva Gosvami offers His respects to the Lord. This is also confirmed by Shridhara Svami, the foremost commentator on Shrimad-Bhagavatam in the following words:

“I offer my respectful obeisances unto the supremely blissful Original Personality of Godhead, who is known as the son of Maharaja Nanda.”

Anuccheda 39

In this way Shridhara Svami has confirmed the statement of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (Canto One, Chapter Three) that Shri Krishna is the Original Personality of Godhead.

That Shri Krishna is the Original Personality of Godhead is also confirmed in the following verse of Shrimad-Bhagavatam 
(10.72.15):

When Shri Krishna, the Original Personality of Godhead, heard from King Yudhishöhira that the enemy Jarasandha was almost impossible to defeat, Lord Krishna proposed the following plan, which had already been suggested by Uddhava.

Shridhara Svami explains in his commentary that the word “adyah” (Original Personality of Godhead) clearly refers to Lord Krishna.

Anuccheda 40

This is also confirmed by the following statement spoken by Lord Krishna to His internal potency Yogamaya (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.2.9):

“O all-auspicious Yogamaya, I shall then appear with My full six opulences as the son of Devaki.”

Shridhara Svami explains that in this verse the word “amsha-bhagena” means “accompanied by His expansions, the purusha-incarnations”. This description confirms the statement of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (1.3.38): “Krishnas tu bhagavan svayam” (Shri Krishna is the Original Personality of Godhead, the source of all incarnations of Godhead).

Anuccheda 41

This is also confirmed in the following statement spoken by Devaki to Lord Krishna (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.85.31):

O Lord Krishna, O all-pervading Supersoul, You are the Original Personality of Godhead. By a tiny fragment of a part of a part of a portion of Your potency the material universes are created and again annihilated. I surrender unto You and take shelter of You.

Shridhara Svami explains in his commentary:

“In this verse the first “amsha” (portion) referred to is the purusha-avatara. The portion of the purusha-avatara is the illusory potency maya, and the portion of maya is the three modes of material nature. By an atomic fragment of the modes of nature, the material universes are created, maintained and destroyed. In this way, by a portion of a portion of a portion of a portion of the Lord’s potency the material world is created. In this verse the word `tva’ means `unto You’ and the phrase `gatim gatasmi’ means `I take shelter'”.

The proper interpretation of this verse is:

“I wanted to see both of You, and therefore I have brought the sons of the brahmana here. Both of You have appeared in the material world to re-establish religious principles, and you have appeared here with all your potencies and the incarnations who have expanded from You. Please kill all the demons, and cause them to quickly return to the spiritual world.”

Anuccheda 42

That Lord Krishna is the origin of the Narayana feature of Godhead is confirmed in the following statement spoken to Lord Krishna by Brahma (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.14.14):

O Lord of lords, You are the seer of all creation. You are indeed everyone’s dearest life. Are You not, therefore, my father, Narayana? `Narayana’ refers to one whose abode is in the water born from Nara (Garbhodakashayi Vishnu), and that Narayana is Your plenary portion. All Your plenary portions are transcendental. They are absolute and are not creations of maya.”*

That Krishna is the Original Personality of Godhead is also confirmed in the following statement of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.13.15):

Brahma had observed the activities of the most powerful Krishna in killing and delivering Aghasura, and he was astonished.”

Brahma became amazed when he saw that the sinful demon Agha 
had become liberated by the mercy of Krishna. The liberation of Agha could not have been performed by any other form of the Lord. Only the Original Personality of Godhead, Lord Krishna, could have liberated such a sinful person.

Krishna’s supremacy is also described in the following verse (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.13.15):

Brahma wanted to show some of his own power and see the power of Krishna, who was engaged in His childhood pastimes, playing as if with ordinary cowherd boys. Therefore in Krishna’s absence, Brahma took all the boys and calves to another place. Thus he became entangled, for in the very near future he would see how powerful Krishna was.

This verse describes Brahma’s desire to see more excellent pastimes of the Lord. This chapter (Canto 10, Chapter 13) describes how Brahma actually saw the Lord’s extraordinary opulence and glory.

This passage from Shrimad-Bhagavatam describes how millions of Lord Krishna’s vishnu-tattva expansions were shown to Brahma by Lord Krishna, who manifested Them as merely a portion of a portion of His potency. These vishnu-tattva expansions were all the masters of all the material universes and they were being worshiped by the Lord various potencies, headed by Aja, by all personified opulences, by the mystic perfections, headed by Anima, by the 24 material elements enumerated by the Sankhya philosophy, by the mahat-tattva and other potencies, by the Lord’s assistants and associates, by personified time and other potencies of the Lord, by the various material universes manifested by the time potency, by innumerable Brahmas and other demigods entrusted with the details of universal creation, and by all the individual living entities (jivas), even down to the blades of grass.

In His commentary on this verse, Shrila Shridhara Svami confirms that all transcendental potencies are manifested from Lord Krishna, and Lord Krishna is the original source of everything. In order to substantiate these points, Shridhara Svami quotes the “krishnas tu bhagavan svayam (Shri Krishna is the Original Personality of Godhead) statement of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (1.3.28).

Shri Krishna is the all-powerful master of all potencies, and He is not different from His manifestations as the Universal Form and as the all-pervading Supersoul who is manifested everywhere throughout the expanse of innumerable material universes. In his commentary on the verse “jagrihe paurusham rupam (The Original Personality of Godhead then accepted the form of the purusha-avatara) (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.3.1), Shridhara Svami explains that the purusha-avatara is actually not different from the Universal Form, and the Original Personality of Godhead is also not different from the purusha-avatara. Actually, Lord Krishna is the shelter upon whom everything rests. Shridhara Svami confirms this in the introductory verses of his commentary on the Tenth Canto of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (Bhavartha-dipika 10.1.1-2) in the following words:
“I offer my respectful obeisances to Shri Krishna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the ultimate source of all the universes. That Shri Krishna is described in the first nine Cantos of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (which contain descriptions of nine subjects, beginning with primary and secondary creation of the material universes).

“The Tenth Canto of Shrimad-Bhagavatam reveals the tenth object, the Supreme Personality of Godhead who is the shelter of the surrendered souls. He is known as Shri Krishna, and He enjoyed transcendental bliss, performing pastimes in the ocean known as the family of Maharaja Yadu.”*

In these verses Shridhara Svami clearly describes Lord Krishna as the Original Personality of Godhead, the supreme shelter of everyone. If one wishes to consider another form of God as the original form, then he must reject these verses of Shridhara Svami as useless and without meaning. That Krishna is the Original Form of the Godhead is confirmed in the following words of Lord Brahma:
“O Krishna, Lord Narayana is Your plenary portion.”

Anuccheda 43

In the 85th Chapter of the Tenth Canto of Shrimad-Bhagavatam, Shri Krishna is described as the all-pervading Supersoul. He is addressed as “purusha” and “tryadhisha” which indicate that He is the Personality of Godhead, and He is also addressed as “ishvareshvara” which indicates that He is the original source of all incarnations of Godhead. This is summarized in the following statement of Maharaja Vasudeva (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.85.18):

My dear Krishna and Balarama, I know that neither of You are my sons; You are the original chief and progenitor, the Original Personalities of Godhead, known as Pradhana and Purusha. But You have appeared on the surface of this globe in order to minimize the burden of the world by killing the kshatriya kings who are unnecessarily increasing their military strength.

In the quote from Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.1.22) found in Anuccheda 43, the word “sva-kala-shaktya” means “by His own potency the time-factor”. In that same verse the word “ishvareshvarah” means “the Original Personality of Godhead.” By repeating the Supreme Lord’s instructions in these verses, Brahma intends to say to the demigods: “There is no need to make any further request in this matter, because the Personality of Godhead will solve the difficulty.”

The word “tat-priyartham” used in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.1.23 (quoted in Anuccheda 43) means “for the Supreme Lord’s satisfaction”. The word “sura-striyah” in this verse refers to the eternal consorts of the various incarnations (such as Lord Vamana and others) of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. When Lord Krishna, the Original form of the Personality of Godhead appears, then all the plenary expansions of Godhead also appear along with Him, and all the goddesses of fortune, who are the consorts of the Lord’s various incarnations also appear along with Him. The word “sura-striyah” may also refer to the wives of the demigods who accompany the Supreme Lord’s consorts in order to serve them in various ways.


 

How the supreme knowledge was releaved to Brahma :

At the beginning of a certain kalpa, Lord Krishna revealed His original form as cowherd boy, and His original abode, the best of Vaikuntha planets, to Lord Brahma. This is confirmed in the following verse from the Gopala-tapani Upanishad:

“Brahma replied: I continually glorified the Lord and meditated upon Him for millions of years, and at last I was able to understand the transcendental form of the Lord as Shri Krishna, who appeared before me in the dress of a cowherd boy.”
The spiritual practices followed by Lord Brahma, which enabled him to personally meet Lord Krishna, are described in the following verses (22-26) of Brahma-samhita:

“The divine lotus which springs from the navel-pit of Vishnu is in every way related by the spiritual tie with all souls and is the origin of four-faced Brahma versed in the four Vedas.”

“On coming out of the lotus, Brahma, being guided by the Divine potency, turned his mind to the act of creation under the impulse of previous impressions. But he could see nothing but darkness in every direction.”

“Then the goddess of learning, Sarasvati, the divine consort of the Supreme Lord, said this to Brahma, who saw nothing but gloom in all directions: O Brahma this mantra (klim krishnaya govindaya gopijana-vallabhaya svaha) will assuredly fulfill your heart’s desire.”

“O Brahma, do thou practice spiritual association by means of this mantra; then all your desires will be fulfilled.”

After performing austerities, Lord Brahma was able to see Krishna as He appears in the spiritual realm of Dvaraka. This is described in the following verse (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 2.9.14):

“Lord Brahma then saw in the Vaikunöha planets Lord Krishna, the Personality of Godhead who is the Lord of the entire devotee community, the Lord of the Yadu dynasty, the Lord of the goddess of fortune, the Lord of all sacrifices, and the Lord of the universe, and who is served by the foremost servitors like Nanda, Sunanda, Prabala, and Arhana, His immediate associates in Dvaraka.”
The associates of Lord Krishna seen by Brahma at the beginning of the creation are directly mentioned in the description of the Lord’s Dvaraka-lila, confirming that Brahma actually saw the Lord Krishna in the Dvaraka portion of the spiritual world. The following verse (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.14.32) confirms this:

“Sunanda, Nanda, and others are the constant servants of Lord Krishna at Dvaraka.”


 

The actual reason for the Supreme Lord’s appearance in this world is to enact his eternal pastimes and give pleasure to his devotees:

The actual reason for the Supreme Lord’s appearance in this world is not the reason expressed by the demigods in their prayers. The Lord actually appeared to perform certain specific pastimes with His great devotees, the gopis, and His activity of rescuing the earth from the burden of so many demonic kings was merely incidental to that primary reason for His descent.

The Personified Vedas, the sages residing at Dandakaranya, and the sons of the demigod Agni, all became gopis in Vrindavana.

The actual meaning of this phrase (sura-striyah) is explained in the following verse (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.47.60) which describes the exalted position of the gopis in Vrindavana:

“When Lord Krishna was dancing with the gopis in the rasa-lila, the gopis were embraced by the arms of the Lord. This transcendental favor was never bestowed upon the goddess of fortune or the other consorts in the spiritual world. Indeed, never was such a thing imagined by the most beautiful girls in the heavenly planets whose bodily luster and aroma resemble the lotus flower. And what to speak of worldly women who are very beautiful according to the material estimation.”*

We may therefore understand that the phrase “sura-striyah” refers neither to the wives of the demigods, nor the goddesses of fortune, nor the queens of Dvaraka, but to the gopis, who are the internal potencies of Lord Krishna.
Anuccheda 44

Because Shri Krishna is the Original Personality of Godhead, the source of all incarnations, His glories are heard and described throughout the Shrimad-Bhagavatam. This is described in the following statement of Shri Vidura (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 4.17.6-7):

“Prithu Maharaja was a powerful incarnation of Lord Krishna’s potencies; consequently any narration concerning his activities is surely very pleasing to hear, and it produces all good fortune. As far as I am concerned, I am always your devotee as well as a devotee of the Lord, who is known as Adhokshaja. Please therefore narrate all the stories of King Prithu, who, in the form of the son of King Vena, milked the cow-shaped earth.”*

In this verse the word “purva-deha” refers to the incarnation of Prithu Maharaja. The word “purva” means that He was previously seen by by the people of the world. This verse is spoken by Vidura, who here takes shelter of the description of Prithu Maharaja.

Anuccheda 45

This is also confirmed by the following verse from Shrimad-Bhagavatam (4.17.8) describing a conversation between Maitreya and Vidura:

“When Vidura became inspired to hear of the activities of Lord Krishna in His various incarnations, Maitreya, also being inspired and being very pleased with Vidura, began to praise him. Then Maitreya spoke as follows.”*

In connection with this verse we may note that by hearing the glorification of the Supreme Lord, Maitreya Muni became pleased at heart. We may also observe that Lord Krishna is known by the name Vasudeva because He is the son of Maharaja Vasudeva.


 

Krishna is the main topic of entire Srimad Bhagavatam,the scripture recommended for people of Kaliyuga:

Anuccheda 46

That Shri Krishna is described throughout Shrimad-Bhagavatam is confirmed in the following statement about King Parikshit (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.19.5):

“Maharaja Parikshit sat down firmly on the banks of the Ganges to concentrate his mind in Krishna consciousness, rejecting all other practices of self-realization, because transcendental loving service to Krishna is the greatest achievement, superseding all other methods.”*

Shridhara Svami comments in the following way:

“The phrase `shri-krishnanghri-sevam adhimanyamanah’ indicates that Maharaja Parikshit understood that service to Lord Krishna’s lotus feet is the real goal of life.”

Anuccheda 47

That Shri Krishna is the subject of the entire Bhagavatam is also confirmed in the following verse spoken by the sages of Naimisharanya to King Parikshit (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.19.20):

“O chief of all the saintly kings of the Pandu dynasty who are strictly in the line of Lord Shri Krishna! It is not at all astonishing that you give up your throne, which is decorated with the helmets of many kings, to achieve eternal association with the Personality of Godhead.”*

Anuccheda 64

In the following verse from the Gopala-tapani Upanishad (1.29), Lord Krishna is described as the Supreme Personality of Godhead and the original teacher of Vedic knowledge:

“It was Krishna who in the beginning instructed Brahma in Vedic knowledge and who disseminated Vedic knowledge in the past. Those who aspire to become liberated surrender to Him, the Supreme Personality of Godhead who grants transcendental knowledge to His devotees.”

Anuccheda 55

Maharaja Parikshit and Shukadeva Gosvami were both great devotees of the Lord. They are described in the following verses (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 2.3.15-16):

“Maharaja Parikshit, the grandson of the Pandavas, was from his very childhood a great devotee of the Lord. Even while playing with dolls he used to worship Lord Krishna by imitating the worship of the family Deity.
“Shukadeva Gosvami, the son of Vyasadeva, was also full in transcendental knowledge and was a great devotee of Lord Krishna, son of Vasudeva. So there must have been discussion of Lord Krishna, who is glorified by great philosophers and in the company of great devotees.”*

Anuccheda 56

What is the need to explain this point any further? Lord Krishna’s pastimes are described, to the exclusion of any other topic, in the Tenth and Eleventh Cantos of Shrimad-Bhagavatam, which constitute half of the entire book. Other forms of the Lord are summarily described in the first Nine Cantos, whereas the pastimes of Lord Krishna are elaborately described in the Tenth and Eleventh Cantos. We may therefore conclude that the description of Lord Krishna is the principal subject matter of the Bhagavatam. We may also note that Shukadeva Gosvami begins the teaching of the Bhagavatam by appealing for the mercy of Shri Krishna (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 2.4.20) in the following words:

“May Lord Shri Krishna, who is the worshipable Lord of all devotees, the protector and glory of all the kings like Andhaka and Vrishni of the Yadu dynasty, the husband of all goddesses of fortune, the director of all sacrifices and therefore the leader of all living entities, the controller of all intelligence, the proprietor of all planets, spiritual and material, and the supreme incarnation on the earth (the supreme all in all), be merciful upon me.”

Anuccheda 57

Shrila Vyasadeva also says that Shri Krishna is the primary subject of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.7.6-7):

“The material miseries of the living entity, which are superfluous to him, can be directly mitigated by the linking process of devotional service. But the mass of people do not know this, and therefore the learned Vyasadeva compiled this Vedic literature, which is in relation to the Suprme Truth.*

“Simply by giving aural reception to this Vedic literature, the feeling for loving devotional service to Lord Krishna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, sprouts up at once to extinguish the fire of lamentation, illusion and fearfulness.”

The name “Adhokshaja” in this verse (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.7.6 second line) is specifically a name of Lord Krishna. The derivation of this name is given in the following words of the Vasudeva-mahatmya section of the Hari-vamsha (Vishnu-parva 101.30-32):

“When infant Krishna was resting in His cradle, a powerful, gigantic and terrible demonness named Putana disguised herself as a beautiful young woman and attempted to kill Krishna by offering her breast, which had been smeared with poison, for the tiny child to suck. When the cowherd men and gopis saw that the gigantic demoness had instead been killed by the tiny child Krishna, they exclaimed: `Our child is rescued! It is as if He has attained another birth (ja) unseen by us (adhoksha)!’ Because of this exclamation by the cowherd men, Lord Krishna is known as `Adhokshaja’ (He who, unseen by the cowherd men, was born again).”
The author of the Shri-Bhagavan-nama-kaumudi glorifies the Lord by giving the following elaborate derivation of the name “Krishna (Bhagavan-nama-kaumudi 3.6):

“The name `Krishna’ may mean: 1. He whose complexion is blackish as a tamala tree, 2. the small child who drank the breast milk of Mother Yashoda, or 3. the Supreme Brahman.”


Benefits of hearing Srimad Bhagavatam:


 
Anuccheda 58

Narada Muni explains the benefit of hearing Shrimad-Bhagavatam in the following words (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.5.26):

“O Vyasadeva, in that association and by the mercy of those great Vedantists, I could hear them describe the attractive activities of Lord Krishna. And thus listening attentively, my taste for hearing of the Personality of Godhead increased at every step.”*

This benefit of hearing Shrimad-Bhagavatam is described by Maharaja Parikshit in the following words (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.7.1-2, also quoted in Anuccheda 51, Text 1):

“King Parikshit said: My lord, Shukadeva Gosvami, all the various activities exhibited by the incarnations of the Supreme Personality of Godhead are certainly pleasing to the ear and to the mind. Simply by one’s hearing of these activities, the dirty things in one’s mind immediately vanish. Generally we are reluctant to hear about the activities of the Lord, but Krishna’s childhood activities are so attractive that they are automatically pleasing to the mind and ear. Thus one’s attachment for hearing about material things, which is the root cause of material existence, vanishes, and one gradually develops devotional service to the Supreme Lord, attachment for Him, and friendship with devotees who give us the contribution of Krishna consciousness. If you think it fit, kindly speak about those activities of the Lord.”*

We may also note in this connection that Maharaja Parikshit and Shukadeva Gosvami were both situated on the same exalted devotional platform, for Shukadeva Gosvami was as eager to speak the glories of Lord Krishna as Maharaja Parikshit was eager to hear them.


 


English References :

  1. Nitaai Veda. We are grateful to them for their repository .
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